Chap 33 Day 2 Aim: How did the British colonize Asia?

Chap 33 Day 2 Aim: How did the British colonize Asia?

Chap 33 Day 2 Aim: How did the British colonize Asia? The Jewel in the British Crown East India Company Monopoly on India trade Original permission from Mughal emperors Mughal empire declines after death of Aurangzeb, 1707 Protection of economic

interests through political conquest British and Indian troops (sepoys) Enfield rifles Cartridges in wax paper greased with animal fat Problem for Hindus: beef Problem for Muslims: pork Sepoys capture garrison 60 soldiers, 180 civilian males massacred (after surrender) Two weeks later, 375 women and children murdered

British retake fort, hang rebels Sepoy Revolt 1857 Britain establishes direct rule Pre-empts East India Company Established civil service staffed by English Low-level Indian civil servants British Rule in India Organization of agriculture Crops: tea, coffee, opium

Stamp of British culture on Indian environment Veneer on poor Muslim-Hindu relations British, French, Russians complete for central Asia France drops out after Napoleon Russia active after 1860s in Tashkent, Bokhara, Samarkand, and approached India The Great Game:

Russian vs. British intrigue in Afghanistan Preparation for imperialist war Russian Revolution of 1917 forestalled war Imperialism in Central Asia Spanish: Philippines Dutch: Indonesia (Dutch East Indies) British establish presence from 1820s -Conflict w/ kings of Burma (Myanmar) 1820s, established

col. authority by 1880s -Thomas Raffles founds Singapore for trade in Strait of Melaka, Base of British colonization in Malaysia, 1870s1880s French: Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos, 1859-1893 Encouraged conversion to Christianity Imperialism in Southeast Asia The Scramble for Africa (1875-1900) French, Portugese,

Belgians, and English competing for the dark continent Britain establishes strong presence in Egypt, Rhodesia Suez Canal Rhodesian gold. Diamonds How did the map change? Ancient Africa Implications for justification of imperialist rule

European exploration of rivers (Nile, Niger, Congo, Zambesi) Information on interior of Africa King Leopold II of Belgium starts Congo Free State, commercial ventures Takes control of colony in 1908, renamed Belgian Congo Rewriting African History

Fourteen European states, United States No African states present Rules of colonization: any European state can take unoccupied territory after informing other European powers European firepower dominates Africa Exceptions: Ethiopia fights off Italy (1896); Liberia a dependency of the US

The Berlin Conference 1885 South African (Boer) War 1899-1902 Dutch East India establishes Cape Town (1652) Farmers (Boers) follow to settle territory, later called Afrikaners Competition and conflict with indigenous Khoikhoi and Xhosa peoples British takeover in 1806, slavery a major issue of conflict Afrikaners migrate eastward: the Great Trek, overpower Ndebele and Zulu resistance with superior firepower Establish independent Republics British tolerate this until gold is discovered White-white conflict, black soldiers and laborers

Afrikaners concede in 1902, 1910 integrated into Union of South Africa Assessment Compare and contrast colonization in Africa and in Asia. Create a thesis statement for a C/C essay.

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