Ch. 3

Ch. 3

Sensation and Perception PSY 2012 L. A. Siegel, MA, PhD (C), CST, AASECT Psychology: An Introduction Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto 2005 Prentice Hall The Nature of Sensation Psychology: An Introduction Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto 2005 Prentice Hall The Basic Process

Receptor cells Specialized cells that respond to a particular type of energy Doctrine of specific nerve energies One-to-one

relationship between stimulation of a specific nerve and the resulting sensory experience Psychology: An Introduction Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto 2005 Prentice Hall Sensory Thresholds Absolute threshold The minimum amount of energy that can be

detected 50% of the time Psychology: An Introduction Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto 2005 Prentice Hall Absolute Thresholds Taste: 1 gram (.0356 ounce) of table salt in 5 gallons of water Smell: 1 drop of perfume diffused throughout a six-room apartment Touch: the wing of a bee falling on your cheek from a height of 1cm (.39 inch)

Hearing: the tick of a watch from 6 meters (20 feet) in very quiet conditions; mosquito at 10 ft Vision: a candle flame seen from 50km (30 miles) on a clear, dark night Psychology: An Introduction Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto 2005 Prentice Hall Sensory Thresholds Difference threshold The

smallest change in stimulation that can be detected 50% of the time Also called the just noticeable difference (JND) Psychology: An Introduction Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto 2005 Prentice Hall Sensory Thresholds Sensory adaptation An

adjustment of the senses to the level of stimulation they are receiving Psychology: An Introduction Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto 2005 Prentice Hall Sense and Sensibility Adaptation Swimming pool Hot

tub Shower Dark Smell Loud Noise Psychology: An Introduction Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto 2005 Prentice Hall Sensory Modalities Somatic sensory system Auditory system

Vestibular system (kinesthesis) Visual system Olfactory system Gustatory system Psychology: An Introduction Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto 2005 Prentice Hall The Anatomy of the Eye Psychology: An Introduction Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto 2005 Prentice Hall The Visual System

Retina Lining of the eye containing receptor cells that are sensitive to light Fovea Center of the visual field

Psychology: An Introduction Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto 2005 Prentice Hall Receptor Cells Cells in the retina that are sensitive to light Visual receptors are called rods and cones Psychology: An Introduction Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto 2005 Prentice Hall

The Visual Stimulus Light Light travels in waves with two important properties Wavelength, perceived as color Amplitude, perceived as brightness Psychology: An Introduction Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto 2005 Prentice Hall The Electromagnetic Spectrum and

Visible Light The electromagnetic spectrum ranges from cosmic rays, through x-rays and ultraviolet light, to TV and radio waves Psychology: An Introduction Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto 2005 Prentice Hall Rods and Cones Psychology: An Introduction Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto

2005 Prentice Hall Receptor Cells Rods About Cones 120 million rods Respond to light and dark Very sensitive to light Provide our night vision

About 8 million cones Respond to color as well as light and dark Work best in bright light Found mainly in the fovea Psychology: An Introduction Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto 2005 Prentice Hall Receptor Cells

Bipolar cells Receive input from receptor cells Ganglion cells Receive

input from bipolar cells Blind spot Area where axons of ganglion cells leave the eye Psychology: An Introduction Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto 2005 Prentice Hall

Visual Pathways Psychology: An Introduction Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto 2005 Prentice Hall Adaptation Dark adaptation Increased darkness

Light sensitivity of rods and cones in adaptation Decreased bright light sensitivity of rods and cones in Afterimage Sense

experience that occurs after a visual stimulus has been removed Psychology: An Introduction Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto 2005 Prentice Hall Color Vision Properties of color Hue refers to colors such as red and green

Saturation refers to the vividness of a hue Brightness the nearness of a color to white Psychology: An Introduction Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto 2005 Prentice Hall Theories of Color Vision Trichromatic Three theory different types of cones

Red Green Blue-violet Experience of color is the result of mixing of the signals from these receptors Can account for some types of colorblindness Psychology: An Introduction Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto 2005 Prentice Hall Opponent-Process Theory of Color

Vision Proposes the existence of opposing red-green, blue-yellow, and black-white channels Psychology: An Introduction Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto 2005 Prentice Hall Forms of Colorblindness Approximately 10% of men and 1% of women

have some form of colorblindness Dichromats People who are blind to either red-green or blueyellow Monochromats People who see no color at all, only shades of light and

dark Psychology: An Introduction Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto 2005 Prentice Hall Colorblindness What numbers do you see? Psychology: An Introduction Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto 2005 Prentice Hall Color Vision in Other Species

Other species see colors differently than humans Most other mammals are dichromats Rodents tend to be monochromats, as are owls who have only rods Bees can see ultraviolet light Psychology: An Introduction Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto 2005 Prentice Hall The Sound Stimulus Sound Waves

Sound waves have different amplitudes and frequencies Amplitude is encoded as loudness or intensity Frequency is encoded as pitch Psychology: An Introduction Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto 2005 Prentice Hall Ranges of Hearing

Psychology: An Introduction Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto 2005 Prentice Hall Sound Psychology: An Introduction Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto 2005 Prentice Hall Auditory System Environmental sounds enter external ear canal (auditory meatus)

Reach tympanic membrane (ear drum) Vibrations move thru small bones in middle ear ossicles (malleus, incus, stapes) Transmit vibrations to cochlea Auditory nerve connects to auditory cortex Psychology: An Introduction Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto 2005 Prentice Hall The Ear Eardrum Middle

ear Contains three small bones; the hammer, anvil, and stirrup These bones relay and amplify the incoming sound waves Psychology: An Introduction Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto 2005 Prentice Hall

The Ear Oval window Membrane between middle ear and inner ear Cochlea Part of inner ear

containing fluid that vibrates This causes the basilar membrane to vibrate Psychology: An Introduction Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto 2005 Prentice Hall Psychology: An Introduction Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto 2005 Prentice Hall Psychology: An Introduction Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto

2005 Prentice Hall Auditory Pathways Psychology: An Introduction Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto 2005 Prentice Hall Hearing Disorders About 28 million people have some form of hearing damage in the U.S. Can be caused by Injury

Infections Explosions Long-term exposure to loud noises Psychology: An Introduction Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto 2005 Prentice Hall Smell Detecting common odors

Odorant binding protein is released and attached to incoming molecules These molecules then activate receptors in the olfactory epithelium Axons from those receptors project directly to the olfactory bulb

Psychology: An Introduction Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto 2005 Prentice Hall Olfaction Psychology: An Introduction Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto 2005 Prentice Hall Smell Women have a better sense of smell than

men Anosmia Complete loss of the ability to smell Psychology: An Introduction Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto 2005 Prentice Hall Smell Pheromones Used by animals as a form of communication

Provides information about identity Also provides information about sexual receptivity Pheromones stimulate the vomeronasal organ (VNO) Information from the VNO is sent to a special part of the olfactory bulb used for pheromonal communication Psychology: An Introduction Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto 2005 Prentice Hall Taste

Four basic tastes Sweet Salty Sour Bitter Recent discovery of fifth taste Umami

Psychology: An Introduction Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto 2005 Prentice Hall Taste Psychology: An Introduction Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto 2005 Prentice Hall Gustatory Sense Psychology: An Introduction Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto 2005 Prentice Hall

Kinesthetic Senses Kinesthetic senses provide information about speed and direction of movement Stretch receptors sense muscle stretch and contraction Golgi tendon organs sense movement of tendons Psychology: An Introduction Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto

2005 Prentice Hall Vestibular Senses Vestibular senses provide information about equilibrium and body position Fluid moves in two vestibular sacs Motion sickness may be caused by discrepancies between visual information and vestibular sensation Psychology: An Introduction Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto 2005 Prentice Hall

Vestibular Sense The Inner Ear Sensitive to position, acceleration, and rotational movements Psychology: An Introduction Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto 2005 Prentice Hall The Skin Senses (Somatic) Skin is the largest sense organ

There are receptors for pressure, temperature, and pain Touch appears to be important not just as a source of information, but as a way to bond with others Psychology: An Introduction Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto 2005 Prentice Hall Receptors for Touch, Temperature, and Pain Psychology: An Introduction Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto

2005 Prentice Hall Somatic Sense Discriminative Touch: recognize shape, size, texture, movement across the skin Proprioception: sense of body position (think sobriety test!) Pain Temperature Psychology: An Introduction Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto 2005 Prentice Hall

Pain Serves as a warning about injury or other problem Large individual differences in pain perception Gate control theory Neurological gate in spinal cord which controls transmission of pain to brain Psychology: An Introduction

Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto 2005 Prentice Hall The Gate Control Theory of Pain Psychology: An Introduction Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto 2005 Prentice Hall Endorphins Released in response to pain and pleasure Psychology: An Introduction

Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto 2005 Prentice Hall Pain Biopsychosocial theory Holds that pain involves not just physical stimulus, but psychological and social factors as well Placebo

effect Psychology: An Introduction Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto 2005 Prentice Hall Pain Alternative approaches Hypnosis Self-hypnosis Accupuncture

Psychology: An Introduction Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto 2005 Prentice Hall Perception Psychology: An Introduction Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto 2005 Prentice Hall Perceptual Organization Figure-ground We

perceive a foreground object (figure) against a background (ground) Animals may look like the background they inhabit as a way of destroying figureground distinction Psychology: An Introduction Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto 2005 Prentice Hall

Psychology: An Introduction Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto 2005 Prentice Hall Psychology: An Introduction Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto 2005 Prentice Hall Perceptual Organization Other principles of organization Proximity Similarity

Closure Continuity Psychology: An Introduction Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto 2005 Prentice Hall Perceptual Organization Perceptual Constancy Our tendency to

perceive objects as stable and unchanging despite changing sensory information Size constancy Shape constancy Brightness constancy Color constancy Psychology: An Introduction Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto 2005 Prentice Hall

Perception of Distance and Depth Binocular cues those that require both eyes Retinal disparity Convergence Psychology: An Introduction Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto 2005 Prentice Hall

Localizing Sounds We use both monaural and binaural cues Loudness Louder sounds are perceived as being closer

Time of arrival Sounds will arrive at one ear sooner than the other This helps determine direction of the sound Psychology: An Introduction Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto 2005 Prentice Hall Perception of Movement

Apparent Illusion movement that still objects are moving Autokinetic Perceived illusion motion of a single object Stroboscopic Created

Phi motion by a rapid series of still pictures phenomenon Apparent motion created by lights flashing in sequence Psychology: An Introduction Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto

2005 Prentice Hall Visual Illusions Occur because of misleading cues in the stimulus Gives rise to false perceptions Psychology: An Introduction Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto 2005 Prentice Hall

Psychology: An Introduction Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto 2005 Prentice Hall Individual Differences and Culture in Perception Motivation Our desires or needs shape our current perceptions Values Expectations Cognitive

Style Experience and Culture Personality Psychology: An Introduction Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto 2005 Prentice Hall

Recently Viewed Presentations

  • Literary Nonfiction Review - Alvin Independent School ...

    Literary Nonfiction Review - Alvin Independent School ...

    Can speeches, which are considered nonfiction, have literary elements like fiction? Absolutely. Speeches use literary elements all the time, particularly literary devices, such as figurative language and imagery. Speeches use literary devices to help appeal to audiences.
  • Understanding Our Environment

    Understanding Our Environment

    The Seedless Vascular Pants: Ferns and Their Relatives
  • 1 Any function of the form y =

    1 Any function of the form y =

    * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * Any function of the form y = f (x) = ax 2 + bx + c where a 0 is called a Quadratic Function *...
  • Communications Workshop: Islands in the [Video] Stream Inside

    Communications Workshop: Islands in the [Video] Stream Inside

    What else can you do? Capitol video event and dvd distribution to schools and libraries across the state. Adobe Premiere subscription for $20 monthly, Premiere Elements is $99, Final Cut X (Mac) $299. ... GoAnimate.com. Streaming for live interviews from...
  • Virginia Laws Related to Substance Use During Pregnancy

    Virginia Laws Related to Substance Use During Pregnancy

    §54.1-2403.1 (1992) §63.2 - 1509 B (1998;2012) §32.1-127 (2012) Prenatal care providers must conduct a medical history to screen all pregnant women for substance use. Providers must . report substance exposed . newborns . to . CPS. Hospitals must refer...
  • Ernest Hemingway 1899-1961 - Houston Community College

    Ernest Hemingway 1899-1961 - Houston Community College

    The Life: Born on July 21, 1899, in Cicero (now in Oak Park), Illinois, Ernest Hemingway served in World War I and worked in journalism before publishing his story collection In Our Time.He was renowned for novels like The Sun...
  • Endocrine system - Lancaster High School

    Endocrine system - Lancaster High School

    Endocrine system Chapter 45 Endocrine system Regulation & communication Blood system Glands (ductless) Hormones (chemicals) Target tissues Nervous system Regulation & communication Nerves Axon Neurotransmitters Synapse Both systems (overlap) Neurohormone Released by the nervous system Into blood stream (ADH) Norepinephrine...
  • Microbiology - Las Positas College

    Microbiology - Las Positas College

    List the defining characteristics of protozoa. Differentiate an intermediate host from a definitive host. List the distinguishing characteristics of the two classes of parasitic helminths, and give an example of each. Provide a rationale for the elaborate life cycles of...