Cell Structure and Function - Windward Community College

Cell Structure and Function - Windward Community College

The Cell as the Fundamental Unit of Life: The Structure and Function of Cellular Organelles The cell is the smallest unit of life. All organisms are composed one

or more cells. New cells arise from previously existing cells. Basic Cell Structure Each cell has four common components: 1. Plasma membrane

2. Region containing DNA 3. Cytoplasm 4. Biochemical molecules & biochemical pathways Cells Two fundamental types:

Prokaryotic No Nucleus No organelles Small 100nm-5um Eukaryotic True Nucleus Membrane bound

organelles 10-100um Some are larger Classification Five kingdom system: Monera

Protista Plantae Fungi

Animalia Plantae Fungi Animalia

Six kingdom system: Eubacteria Archaebacteria Protista

Three domain system: Eubacteria Archaebacteria E

U K A

R Y A Protista

Archaebacteria Chromista Eubacteria

Archezoa Eight kingdom system: Plantae Fungi

Animalia Three Lineages of Life: Domain Bacteria Kingdom Eubacteria

Eubacteria Archaebacteria Protista Plantae

Fungi Prokaryotes: No true nucleus No membrane-bound organelles Cell Wall composed of peptidoglycan

Reproduce asexually by budding and fission Very small (1 - 10 m) Animalia Kingdom Archaebacteria Eubacteria

Archaebacteria Protista Plantae

Fungi Animalia Eukaria Prokaryotes:

No true nucleus No membrane-bound organelles like mitochondria or chloroplasts NO peptidoglycan in cell wall Reproduce asexually by budding and fission Very small (1 - 10 m) Extreme environments (high temperatures)

Prokaryotic Cells Eukaryotes Eubacteria

Archaebacteria Protista Plantae Fungi

Eukaryotes: True nucleus Membrane-bound organelles Cell size generally 10 - 100 m At least 4 lineages: Protista, Plantae, Fungi, Animalia

Animalia Eukaryotic Cells Typical Animal Cell

The Cytoplasm Plasma Membrane Fluid mosaic model: Working model of the membrane Protein molecules bobbing in phospholipid sea Proteins determine membranes specific

functions Structure of the Cell Membrane Phospholipids Most abundant lipid Polar/hydrophilic head(attracted to water) Pair of nonpolar/hydrophobic tails(repelled by water)

Hydrophilic head Hydrophobic tails Phospholipid bilayer:

Polar heads, outside & inside Nonpolar tails in the interior Cell Membranes Rough and Smooth ER

Golgi Apparatus Receives substances from ER, refines and packages them Lysosome Function Cytoskeleton

Cillia & Flagella- 9x2 arrangement 0.1 micrometer Flagellum

Flagellar Movement Ciliated Epithelium Ciliary Movement Ameboid Movement

Ex. WBC Typical Plant Cell Typical Plant Cell

Cell Walls Chloroplasts INQUIRY 1. Which kingdom do bacteria belong? 2. What is the difference between prokaryotic and

eukaryotic? 3. Compare a plant and animal cell. 4. What is the function of: Mitochondria Nucleus Golgi apparatus Lysozome

Ribosomes Smooth and rough ER Cellular Visions: The inner life of a cell (video) http://www.studiodaily.com/main/searchlist/6850.html

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