Cardiac Conduction System

Cardiac Conduction System

Agonists, Antagonists & Types of Muscle Contractions Agonists, Antagonists A joint cannot move by itself, it needs muscles to move bones into position. When a muscle contracts, one end is anchored in place and the other end pulls the bone, causing movement. If we use the biceps as an example, the anchor point is on the scapula (shoulder) and the other end of the muscle attaches on the radius (forearm). The bicep is responsible for flexion of the elbow when the muscle contracts, the radius moves upwards towards the shoulder. Agonists, Antagonists A joint cannot move by itself, it needs muscles to move bones into position. When a muscle contracts, it is responsible for the movement that is occurring and is said to be acting as an agonist. There can be more than one agonist acting at a joint although this does depend on the type of movement that is being performed. An antagonist muscle is one that works in opposition to the agonist, so when the biceps is contracting, the triceps is lengthening and acting as the antagonist.

Agonists, Antagonists Continued When one muscle is acting as an agonist and the other is acting as the antagonist, the muscles are said to be working together as a pair to produce the required movement. This arrangement is commonly referred to as antagonistic muscle action. If we look at flexion of the knee, the hamstrings are the agonist muscles and the quadriceps are the antagonist muscles. Key Terms You Should Know Before we start this section Agonist The muscle that is responsible for the movement that is occurring

Antagonist The muscle that works in opposition to the agonist (to help produce a co-ordinated movement) Muscles you need to know Deltoi d Triceps Brachii Biceps Brachii Pectoralis major Pectoralis Minor Triceps Brachii Latissimus Doris iliopsoa

s Quadricep s: Rectus Vastus Femoris Vastus medialis Lateralis (Vastus intermedius) Gastrocnemius Deltoi d Gluteus Medius Gluteus Maximus Adductor longus Tibialis Anterior Soleu s

Adductor Magnus Hamstring Biceps Group Femoris Semitendinosus Semimembranosus Gastrocnemius Soleus The main agonists and antagonist for each of the joint actions Joint Action Agonist Antagonist Elbow Flexion Biceps Triceps Elbow Extension

Triceps Biceps Ankle Plantar-flexion Gastrocnemius Tibialis Anterior Ankle Dorsi-flexion Tibialis Anterior Gastrocnemius Knee Flexion Hamstrings Quadriceps Knee Extension

Quadriceps Hamstrings Hip Flexion Iliopsoas/Hip Flexors Gluteals The main agonists and antagonist for each of the joint actions Joint Action Agonist Antagonist Hip Adduction Adductors (Adductor Brevis/Longus/ Magnus)

Tensor Fascia Latae And Gluteus Medius/Minimus Hip Abduction Tensor Fascia Latae And Gluteus Medius/Minimus Adductors (Adductor Brevis/Longus/ Magnus) Hip Horizontal Adduction Adductors Tensor Fascia Latae And Gluteus Medius/Minimus Hip Horizontal Abduction Tensor Fascia Latae And Gluteus Medius/Minimus Adductors

Shoulder Flexion Anterior Deltoid Latissimus Dorsi Shoulder Extension/Hyper-extension Latissimus Dorsi Anterior Deltoid Shoulder Horizontal Abduction Latissimus Dorsi Pectorals Shoulder Horizontal Adduction Pectorals Latissimus Dorsi

Shoulder Adduction Posterior Deltoid/ Latissimus Dorsi Middle Deltoid/ Supraspinatus Shoulder Abduction Middle Deltoid/ Supraspinatus Posterior Deltoid/ Latissimus Dorsi Types of muscular contraction When a muscle works, it contracts. A muscle can contract in different ways, depending on the muscle action that is required. An isotonic contraction is when a muscle contracts to create movement.

There are two types of isotonic contraction. When the muscle shortens as the fibres contract, a concentric contraction is taking place and when the fibres contract as the muscle lengthens, an eccentric contraction occurs. An isometric contraction takes place when the muscle is contracting but there is no movement occurring. Key Terms You Should Know Before we start this section Concentric Contraction When a muscle shortens under tension. Eccentric Contraction When a muscle lengthens under tension or performs negative work and acts like a break Isometric Contraction When a muscle is under tension but there is no visible movement

Isotonic contractions A muscle causes movement in an isotonic contraction and there are two types: This is when the muscle shortens under tension. For example the upwards phase of a bicep curl, the bicep performs a concentric contraction. Concentric Contraction This is when the muscle lengths under tension (and down not relax). When a muscle contracts eccentrically, it is acting as a brake in helping control the movement of the body Eccentric part during negative work. E.g. landing from a box Contraction jump Isometric contraction

This is when a muscle can contract without actually lengthening or shorting and the result is that no movement occurs. An isometric contraction occurs when a muscle is acting as a fixator or acting against a resistance. A good example of this is the crucifix position in gymnastics Practice Questions Figure 22 shows a weightlifter performing a squat. Using the picture, identify the joint action, main agonist and the type of muscle contraction occurring at the hip and ankle joints as the weightlifter performs the downward phase.

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