Canadian French-English Relations World War One 1914 -1918 At the outset of World War One tremendous disagreement between English and French Canada on what role Canada should play in conflict French Canadians did not think we should get involved in a European / British war Most English-Canadians still felt strong loyalty to Britain and wanted to lend support 1917 Conscription Crisis of WWI When PM Borden introduced
Military Service act of 1917 introduced conscription Divided Canada along language lines English Canada supportive of conscription, French Canada opposed Henri Bourassa, appealed to Quebecois by saying that the war involved no Canadian interests, and therefore Canadians should not be involved. Qubec City Riot (1918) protested conscription, led to 4 deaths World War Two 1939 - 1945 Many women in both English & French
Canada gained employment in munitions factories, etc. 1942 Conscription Crisis again Not as severe as 1917, but there were still protests and tensions 1930s - Roots of Quebec Nationalism 1. Maurice Duplessis Union Nationale Premier of Qubec from 1936-1939, and again from 1944-1959 strong Qubec nationalist who was devoted to the idea of
Qubec as a distinctive society a nation rather than just another Canadian province introduced flag for Qubec bearing the French symbol, the fleur-de-lis to emphasize provinces difference from English-speaking Canada fiercely opposed growing powers of federal government in post-war years Duplessis cont HOWEVERwhile tried to keep out the influence of foreign culture, he encouraged foreign investment businesses and industries from Ontario and USA were attracted
by what Qubec had to offer: guaranteed cheap labour, since union activity was either discouraged or banned, and low taxes *see Padlock Law in return for favourable business conditions, companies were expected to contribute generously to the Union Nationale kickbacks / gifts bribery and corruption trademarks of Duplessis regime Roman Catholic Church Under Duplessis, the Roman Catholic Church was the main defender of Qubec culture priests urged people in Qubec to turn
their backs on the materialism of Englishspeaking North America Church praised the old Qubec traditions of farm, faith, and family it ran Qubecs hospitals and schools religion played a role in every part of the curriculum, and the schools taught children to accept authority those few who attended high school and university received a fine education, but with an emphasis on traditional subjects and languages and philosophy result Qubec produced many priests, lawyers, and politicians, but few scientists, engineers, or business people Quiet Revolution 1960s 1960 Duplessis died Jean Lesage and the Liberals came to power in
Qubec under the slogan, Time for a Change Lesage stamped out corruption gov. jobs and contracts were now awarded according to merit wages and pensions were raised restrictions on trade unionism removed Quiet Revolution - Modernization government began a peaceful but dramatic movement to modernize the provinces
economy, politics, education, and culture took control of social services and the education system students required to take more science and technology courses to prepare them for the new Qubec Quebeckers were encouraged to think of themselves as citizens of the 20th century as new attitudes took hold, the influence of the church declined wave of change known as the Quiet Revolution Quiet Revolution -
Matres Chez Nous after 1962 election Liberals campaigned, and won, with the motto, matres chez nous masters in our own house aim to strengthen Qubecs control of its own economy among other steps gov. nationalized (bought out) several hydro companies and turned them into a large, provincially-owned power monopoly Hydro- Qubec
Separatism resentment towards Englishspeaking Canada grew as francophone Quebeckers became proud of their achievements became angrier at what they perceived as injustices by Englishspeaking Canadians i.e. federal government overwhelmingly English; French rarely held Cabinet posts; no French schools in the rest of Canada; Francophones expected to speak English in stores and at work for some only solution was for Quebec to be entirely controlled by Quebeckers in separation from Canada Separatism - FLQ
some young radicals joined terrorist groups like the FLQ (front de liberation du Qubec) and fought in the name of Qubec libre a free Qubec used firebombs and explosives to attack symbols of English-Canadian power in Qubec most notably March 7, 1963 3 Canadian army buildings in Montreal were bombed with Molotov cocktails (homemade firebombs) FLQ claimed responsibility Separatism -
Lvesque and the PQ 1967 influential Qubec cabinet minister Ren Lvesque left the Liberal Party and formed the Parti Qubcois (PQ) Lvesque believed that Qubec and Canada would do better to divorce peacefully than to continue a marriage that seemed no loner workable Ottawas Response - Royal Commission
Lester Pearson became PM in midst of Quiet Revolution convinced that Canada would face a grave crisis unless the French were made to feel more at home in Canada appointed the Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism (The Bi and Bi Commission) to investigate some solutions Main recommendation: that Canada should become officially bilingual
Ottawas Response - New Canadian Flag -1965 1964 Pearson acted on longstanding complaint in Qubec that Canadas symbols were too British suggested a new Canadian flag Maple Leaf chosen as symbol for new flag because it seemed to represent all Canadians instead increased tensions in Canada many English Canadians opposed the new flag because they felt Pearson was pandering to Qubec heated debate split the country now accepted by EnglishCanadians Quebeckers tend to
favour fleur-de-lis finally, on February 15, 1965 Canadas new flag was raised on Parliament Hill for the 1st time Trudeaumania PM from 1968-79; 19801984 Charismatic Enigmatic Intellectual His vision: a just society equality for all also strong advocate of individual freedom believed gov. should not interfere with personal liberties
Trudeau and Qubec Canada becomes Officially Bilingual in 1969 1968 Trudeau succeeded Pearson as PM determined that the federal gov. should do more to persuade people from Qubec that their future lay with Canada 1969 acted n the advice of the Bi and Bi Commission and passed the Official Languages Act making Canada an officially bilingual country from this point on: all federal government agencies across Canada were required to provide services in both languages
Official Languages Act - 1969 met with mixed results some embraced the idea i.e. French Immersion classes; others felt French being forced on them Westerners still felt ignored Francophones not impressed wanted special status for Qubec in Confederation Trudeau would not grant them this Crisis in Quebec
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VVgOvctvax0&feature=related October Crisis - 1970 On October 5, 1970 members of the FLQ kidnapped James Cross, a British diplomat, from his Montreal home In exchange for Crosss safe release FLQ made several demands, including release of FLQ members serving prison sentences for previous criminal acts Federal and Qubec authorities agreed to most demands but refused to release any FLQ prisoners from jail then FLQ kidnapped Qubec Labour Minister Pierre Laporte Alarmed that the situation was out of control Trudeau asked Parliament to impose the War Measures Act
civil rights suspended; anyone could be arrested and detained without being charged with an offense; membership in FLQ became a crime; James Cross Pierre Laporte When asked how far he would go to defeat the FLQ Trudeau said, Just watch me. October 16th federal troops were sent to patrol the streets of Ottawa and Montreal Hundreds of pro-separatist Quebeckers were arrested and
held without charge October 17th police found the body of Pierre Laporte in the trunk of a car had been strangled Two months later Montreal tracked the group holding Cross in a Montreal house In return for Cross safe release kidnappers were permitted safe passage to Cuba, where they would be granted political asylum Those detained under the War Measures Act released Of 450 people held in detention only 25 ever charged October Crisis Dec 3, 1970 - October Crisis Over
Trudeau Just Watch Me (5:50) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XfUq9b1XTa0 PQ in Power - 1976 1976 Ren Lvesque and Parti Qubcois won provincial election during campaign Lvesque assured voters that the PQ would not automatically mean separation promised to hold a province-wide referendum on issue top priority as new gov. strengthening the status of French language passed Bill 101 Charter of the French Language law made French the only official language of the province Qubec gov. employees had to work in French Commercial outdoor signs would have to be in French only
children of immigrants would be required to attend French rather than English schools Francophone Quebeckers welcomes the Lang. law to protect their culture and language to non-Francophones symbol of oppression federal gov. had to find a way to preserve Canadian unity 1980 Referendum 1980 Lvesque gov. called a referendum people asked to vote: YES to give his gov. a mandate to negotiate a new agreement with Canada based on sovereignty-association
proposed that Qubec become politically independent, yet maintain a close economic association with Canada Trudeau made impassioned speeches urging the people of Quebec to remain part of a strong, united, and forwardlooking Canada Trudeau promised to negotiate a new Constitution should the No side win http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4hsMoIq1-bA RESULT 40% voted YES 60% voted NO
Patriating the Constitution Trudeaus intention: BNA Act had been Canadas constitution since 1867 but fell under British jurisdiction no changes could be made without the British Parliaments approval Trudeau wanted to patriate the Constitution (bring it home to Canada), where Canadian gov. would have the authority to make changes; also wanted to include a Charter of Rights and
Freedoms but needed approval of provinces Negotiations with Provinces 1st step needed to come up with an amending formula BUT difficult to get all provinces, with their differing opinions and interests, to agree series of meetings led to frustration federal Justice Minister, Jean Chrtien, amid justice ministers from Ont. and Sask. created what became known as the Kitchen Compromise 9/10 premiers awakened in their hotel rooms to approve the deal because Lvesque was
staying at a different hotel Negotiations with Provinces only would accept Charter if an escape clause was added notwithstanding clause allowed the federal gov. or provincial govs to opt out of some of the clauses of the Charter meant that a provincial law that was contrary to a specific Charter guarantee would be passed, despite anything the Charter contains amending formula reached changes to the Constitution would be made only with the
agreement of 7/10 provincial legislatures representing 50% of Canadas population Negotiations with Provinces afterwards Lvesque argued against the deal but Trudeau went ahead he maintained that the federal gov. had so many members from Qubec that it would speak for that province Lvesque and people of Qubec felt betrayed result called it the Night of the Long Knives Western Alienation came to a head again over a
contract to repair air force jets multibillion $ contract awarded to the Bombardier company of Montreal, even though Bristol Aerospace of Winnipeg had made a better proposal felt gov. wanted to buy Conservative votes in Quebec RESPONSE Reform Party formed in 1987 to be the voice of western Canada Preston Manning Constitution Act - 1982 On April 17, 1982 the new Constitution Act was signed
into law by Queen Elizabeth II and PM Trudeau outside the Parliament Buildings in Ottawa last step to making Canada a completely independent nation as the rest of the country celebrated flags flew at half mast in Qubec; Lvesque led angry demonstration in Qubec City Qubec provincial government refused to sign the proposed new Constitution Unreconciled Provinces - Trudeau http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=LIwqlft4DdY&feature=related.&fmt=18
Constitution Debate - Mulroney 1984 - Mulroney became PM in part due to his promise to obtain Quebecs consent to the Constitution with honour and enthusiasm At same time, Ren Lvesque retired and profederalist Liberal Party, led by Robert Bourassa, took power in Quebec Mulroney began negotiations with Bourassa his plan - to reach an agreement Quebec would sign but other provinces also had own demands
PM Mulroney Examples: Newfoundland (fisheries) and Alberta (oil) wanted more control of their own resources & wanted reforms to Senate that would allow their provinces to have a stronger voice in Ottawa Meech Lake Accord - 1987 1987 PM Mulroney called the premiers to a conference at Meech Lake proposed a package of amendments to the Constitution offered to recognize Quebec as a distinct
society proposed giving more power to the other provinces ie. All would have power to veto Constitutional change Equality or Independence? Trudeau http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=TeSZyHiex5k&feature=related.&fmt=18 Special Status for PQ Trudeau http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=NLkJbcW33rE&NR=1.&fmt=18 Meech Lake Accord - 1987 Response: Quebec supported Accord many critics especially Trudeau said that the
designation of Quebec as a distinct society would create two solitudes in Canada it would isolate the Francophones of Quebec other people worried that the clause could be used for Quebec to override the Charter and deprive specific groups of their rights Meech Lake Accord - 1987 Aboriginal peoples pointed out that they too had a distinct society that needed to be recognized and protected many thought Canadian citizens had not been given the opportunity for input
Manitoba and Newfoundland withheld their support therefore, Meech Lake Accord disintegrated in June, 1990 Quebeckers saw rejection as a humiliation by late 1990, support for separation rose to 64% Elijah Harper MLA in Manitoba Legislature withheld support for Meech Lake due to lack of provisions for Aboriginals Meech Lake Accord - 1987 Lucien Bouchard powerful Quebec member of Mulroneys
Cabinet 1991 - resigned in protest and formed the Bloc Qubcois political party that would run in federal elections to support the aim of Quebec separation The Charlottetown Accord PM Mulroney continued with Constitution debate to avoid past mistakes, appointed a special Citizens Forum a committee that travelled across the nation to hear the views of Canadians
eventually Mulroney & the premiers came up with another package of proposed Constitutional amendments the Charlottetown Accord Charlottetown Accord 1. Proposed Senate Reform making it elected with equal representation from all parts of the country (West wanted this) 2. answered Quebecs concerns 3. supported Aboriginal selfgovernment put to a national referendum in October, 1992 54.5% of voters rejected it problem: so many clauses, each designed to please a different
group easy to find fault greatest opposition BC 68.3% voted NO Growing Feelings of Separatism 1993 Bloc Quebecois became the Official Opposition in Canadian federal government 1995 Referendum second referendum to ask voters in Quebec whether Quebec should secede from Canada and become an independent state. 1995 referendum differed from the 1980 referendum on Quebec's sovereignty in that the 1980 question proposed to negotiate "sovereigntyassociation" with the Canadian
government the 1995 question proposed "sovereignty", along with an optional partnership offer to the rest of Canada. 1995 Referendum The referendum took place in Quebec on October 30, 1995, and the motion to decide whether Quebec should secede from Canada was defeated by an extremely small margin: 50.58% "No" 49.42% "Yes"
1998 Supreme Court Decision Supreme Court Rules that Quebec did not have the right to separate unilaterally (to decide by itself) from Canada Quebec would have to negotiate with the federal government, the 9 other provinces, and the Aboriginal peoples living in Quebec Also any referendums had to have a clear majority that voted yes to a clear question 1999 - 2000 Clarity Act
Introduced in 1999 passed in 2000 Law that established the conditions under which the Government of Canada would enter into negotiations that might lead to secession following such a vote by one of the provinces. Basically put Supreme Court ruling into law: said that in order to lead to separation negotiations, a referendum on independence in a given province would have to have "clearly" (according to the judgment of the Canadian House of Commons) framed its question to voters in terms of independence, and that the result would have to be a "clear majority" in favor, rather than merely, for instance, a 50%+1 majority.
First Nations in Quebec In preparation for a "Yes" victory, aboriginal peoples in Quebec strongly affirmed their own right to self determination. First Nations Chiefs articulated that forcing them to join an independent Quebec would violate international law. In the final week of the referendum campaign, they would insist on being full participants in any new constitutional negotiations resulting from the referendum. voted overwhelmingly against Quebec independence on the eve of the referendum.
First Nations in Quebec On October 24, 1995 they organized their own referendum asking the question: "Do you consent, as a people, that the Government of Quebec separate the James Bay Crees and Cree traditional territory from Canada in the event of a Yes vote in the Quebec referendum?" 96.3% of the 77% of Crees who cast ballots voted to stay in Canada. The Inuit of Nunavik held a similar local vote asking "Do you agree that Quebec should become sovereign?", with 96% voting No. First Nations communities were an important contribution to the tense debate on a hypothetical partition of
Quebec. Maurice Rocket Richard Richard was the first to score 50 goals in one season (the 1944-45 NHL season), doing so in 50 games, and the first to score 500 goals in a career. He finished his career with 544 goals in the regular season, with 82 in the playoffs which included a record six overtime winners, and led the league in goals five times. He also amassed 421 assists for a total of 965 points in 978 games. He retired as the NHL's all-time leading scorer in 1960.
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