Canadian Culture in the 1920s The Roaring Twenties.... For Some A New Prosperity After the post-war recession, Canadas economy began to boom By mid-1920s, the Canadian economy was stronger European countries starting to recover from
the war, demand for Canadian products grew Increased demand created more jobs for Canadians Canadians had money to spare and could afford to buy consumer goods Wheat on the Prairies The Prairie Provinces enjoyed huge wheat crops from 1925 to 1928 Europe was hungry again for Canadian wheat as
economies began to recover The world price of wheat moved steadily upward Farmers began to buy trucks and mechanical harvesters. They replaced their horses with tractors. By 1928, Canada has a record wheat crop and a major share of the world market Prices of wheat remained at an all-time high through the first half of 1929 Pulp and Paper In the 1920s, the production of newsprint became
Canadas largest industry after agriculture From Nova Scotia to BC, vast orests of softwoods such as spruce, pine, and poplar were used to make newsprint Most of the American sources of pulpwood has been used up Giant American newspapers provided a ready market for Canadian pulpswood By 1929, exports of Canadian pulpwood equalled total pulp exports from the rest of the world The boom did have a downside, Canadian forests were
being destroyed Canadas economy was also becoming more and more dependent on the export of raw materials Hydroelectric Power Quebec and Ontario saw a dramatic increase in the production of hydroelectric power in the 1920s More industries were using hydroelectric power instead of coal
People were demanding electricity for their homes, especially as new electrical appliances became available Canadas output of hydroelectric power became the second largest in the world Oil, Gas and Mining People called the 1920s the Oil Age! With automobiles, the demand for gasoline and oils soared
Exciting new mining discoveries were made in the 1920s Large deposits of copper were found in the Canadian Shield along the Ontario-Quebec border At Sudbury, ON, by 1929, Canada was producing almost 80% of hte worlds supply of nickel Urbanization From the farms to the cities Before World War I, more than
50% of Canadians had lived on farms and in rural areas After the war, many began to move to towns and cities New farm machinery meant that less people were needed on farms Manufacturers built their plants in urban areas Canadian cities began to grow as
workers crowded into them Urban and Rural Population, 1911-2006 American Influence on Canadian Economy American economy also became stronger Trade between Canada and the United States grew
Americans needed Canadas natural resources to manufacture their products Canadas resource industries, like forestry and mining, expanded to keep up with the demand for raw materials (ex. Pulp and paper industry Estimates of Foreign supplied American newspaper companies) Investment in Canada, 19151939 American Cultural Influence
Radio dominated by American programming U.S. Radio broadcast music, fashion, and cultural trends up to Canada Hollywood movies Movies, music, dance, fashion were dominated by American influences
Jazz Black American music Made popular by musicians such as Duke Ellington and Louis Armstrong Jazz night-clubs popped up in all major cities (Montreal) Dancing New dance crazes Charleston, Fox Trot, Lindy
Dance of the decade, the Charleston, also emerged out of black American culture Its fast and wild pace quickly caught on with the high-spirited younger generation Changes in Fashion - Flappers Fashionable young women who defied the old conventions of proper feminine behaviour.
They scandalized the public by abandoning Victorian era clothing Flappers wore beaded dresses to their knees, cut their hair short and smoked, drank and danced in public Young men started wearing baggy pants or knickers, bright snappy hats and bow ties Male hair was greased down and parted in the middle to imitate the popular movie idols of the day
Movies Silent until the late-1920s Audience treated with a written narrative that explained the action on screen New technology eventually developed to attach a soundtrack of dialogue, music, and sound effects to the film Known as talking pictures or talkies (first talkie 1928) Dominated by Hollywood
Stars of Hollywoods silent screen were idolized throughout Canada Charlie Chaplin, Rudolph Valentino and Greta Garbo were major stars Charlie Chaplin Greta Garbo Rudolph
Valentino Mary Pickford Ironic that one of the greatest stars of the 1920s was a Canadian born actress Known as Americas
Sweetheart Born and raised in Toronto Sports Increase in sports as entertainment First radio broadcast of hockey 1923 Listening to games on the radio became a national pastime NHL was formed in 1917 (formerly the
National Hockey Association) Originally consisted of only Canadian teams Popularity spread to the US Boston joined in 1924 and New York, Chicago and Detroit joined soon after Georges Vezina Outstanding goalkeeper of the Canadiens, who collapsed during an NHL
game Nov. 28, 1925, and died of tuberculosis a few months later Vezina Trophy Vezina Trophy is an annual award given to the goalkeeper judged to be the best at his position as voted by the general managers of all NHL clubs. Trophy presented to the NHL in 1926-27 in memory of Georges Vezina
Until the 1981-1982 season, the goalkeeper(s) of the team allowing the fewest number of goals during the regular season were awarded the Vezina Trophy Billy Smith of the NY Islanders was the first winner under the current system Jacques Plante holds the record for winning the most Vezinas with seven, trailed by Bill Durnan and Dominik Hasek, both of who have won six. Hasek has won the most under the current system of honoring the best individual goalie MONTREAL goaltenders have won the Vezina 28
times (GO HABS GO!) Bluenose Fishing/racing boat (schooner) from Nova Scotia Designed to beat the Americans Launched in 1921 Won the International Fishermans Trophy in 1921, after beating the American
champion Remained undefeated for 17 years Became a national symbol Travelled to US and Britain representing Canada Appears on the back of the Canadian dime Lionel Conacher, aka The Big Train (19001954) Multi-talented Canadian athlete Professional sports included
football, hockey, baseball, lacrosse, wrestling, boxing Played on Toronto Argonauts 1921 Grey Cup winning team, and scored 15 out of 23 points in the winning game Played professional hockey for both Canadian and American teams Amateur light-heavyweight boxing Champion Named Canadas best athlete of the
first half of the 20th Century Edmonton Grads (1915-1940) All female basketball team The team played 522 games and lost only 20 Undefeated in Olympics from 1924-1936 Claimed world championship four times
Also faced men, and beat seven out of the nine teams they faced Hold North American record for highest percentage of wins 1928 Olympics Women were allowed to compete in track and field for the first time; Canadian women did very well Amsterdam, Netherlands
Fannie Bobbie Rosenfeld (1904-1969) Canadian track and field athlete Won silver and gold medals at the 1928 Olympics Set records in various track and field events Also star hockey, tennis, and baseball player Named Canadas female athlete of the first half of the 20th century Percy Williams (1908-1982)
Canadian Olympic sprinter Won gold medals in the 100- and 200-metre races became first non-American to ever win double-gold in Olympic track events Beat American world record for the 100m dash in 1930 Americans tried to get revenge by hosting a series of track
events, but Williams won 19 out of the 21 races Was known as the best sprinter in the world Greeted back in Canada by parades and celebrations across the country Canada's Percy Williams smiles during an athletics event at the 1928 Amsterdam Olympics.
Williams won gold medals in the 100m and the 200m events Canadian Art Group of Seven A group of Canadian artists that came together around 1913 Known for their paintings of rugged Canadian landscapes Had a very unique style Used strong, deep colours and heavy brush strokes Began exhibiting their works in 1920 Highly influential to other Canadian artists
Tom Thompson (1877-1917) Inspired the artists who later became the Group of Seven Died mysteriously in Algonquin Park in 1917 Some say it was a boating accident; some say it was murder His death remains a mystery http://www.canadianmysteries.ca/sites/ thomson/home/indexen.html
Emily Carr (1871-1945) Fascinated with landscape of British Columbia, as well as Aboriginal culture Lived and travelled with Aboriginals in the 1920s Painted Aboriginal villages, art, and other scenes from her travels Her style was considered unconventional, and many people considered her to be an
eccentric Was greatly inspired by the Group of Seven, although was never allowed to join this tight- Canadian Literature Morley Callaghan (1903-1990) -Canadian author, known for his novels and short stories -His work was widely read by Canadians -Novels were translated and published around the world
-Associated with many famous authors from the United States and Britain Leslie McFarlane, aka Franklin W. Dixon (1902-1977) -wrote 21 books in the Hardy Boys series from 19271947 -These books were widely read in Canada and the United States Stephen Leacock (1869-1944) Canadian author Wrote humorous books that were enjoyed
throughout the world By the 1920s, he established himself as a prominent Canadian writer A museum, a theatre, a literary medal for humour, and public schools are named in his honour Mazo de la Roche (1879-1961) One of the most widely read Canadian authors
Wrote 23 novels, 13 plays, and over 50 short stories Gained international recognition for a novel written in 1927 Published in many different languages and read around the world
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