Canada in the Twentieth Century - mskubiak.weebly.com
CANADA AND THE TWENTIES An Uneasy Adjustment Most Canadian soldiers returned home from the war in early 1919. They did so only to find out there was no steady pensions available to vets, no special medical services, and very few jobs. Many Canadians who did have jobs were dissatisfied. It was during the war that labour unions had reduced pay to do their part for the war effort.
Because of the cost of goods soaring as a result of the prosperity of the war, many families could barely cover the cost of rent and food because of the now low wages. Companys still made profit, and a confrontation between workers and employers was inevitable. Workers Respond Workers demands for higher wages, better working conditions, and the right to join union jobs caused strikes across Canada. Many were long and bitter. Many workers lost jobs or were forced to
accept lower wages. Cape Breton coal and steel workers were hit hard because of the end of the war. Unemployment and long strikes brought about economic hardship, especially in single industry communities. Workers Respond Western union leaders tended to be more socialist than the union leaders of the east.
They believed ordinary people should have more involvement in government. They took influence from the 1917 Bolshevik Revolution in Russia. Communism has all the means of production and distribution owned by the public, with no private enterprise. Unions in the east and west did not always agree on goals of unions. Workers Respond
Western Labour Conference 1919. Union leaders from western Canada founded the One Big Union. It represented all the Canadian workers in one organization. Its goal was to help workers establish more control of industry and government through peaceful means. Their main weapon was a general strike to all employed workers. Winnipeg General Strike May 1919 Winnipegs metal and building workers
walked off the job demanding higher wages, a shorter work week, and the right to collective bargaining. The Winnipeg Traders and Labour Council voted for general strike. 30,000 people walked off the job, with over half not even being union members. The strike paralyzed Winnipeg. There were no fire fighters, postal workers, telephone or telegraph services, newspapers, streetcars, or deliverys. Winnipeg General Strike
Business leaders, politicians, and industrialists formed the Citizens Committee of One Thousand. It saw the union leaders as part of a communist conspiracy to overthrow the government. This had the government intervene out of fear. The Immigration Act was amended to have foreign born union leaders deported. Special police were appointed by the mayor of Winnipeg arresting strike leaders, and he fired many civic workers.
Winnipeg General Strike Strikers protested the mayors actions with a parade that turned violent. RNWMP and special police armed with clubs and pistol charged crowds. The event become know as Bloody Sunday. One striker died and thirty were injured. Many more were arrested. The strike lasted 43 days. Winnipeg General Strike Seven of the arrested leaders were convicted
of conspiracy to overthrow the government, and served between 2month and 2 years in prison. Many workers were not rehired, others signed contracts saying they would not join a union. Distrust had grown significantly between the workers and the business class. It was not until later that much of what the workers fought for was achieved. Regional Protest Regionalism grew as an issue in Canadian politics in the post war years.
1920s the Maritimes found their influence in national politics was declining. The population base was small, which brought few seats in parliament. Many businesses and banks were moving to Ontario and Quebec, and others suffered because their products were no longer in demand. The move from coal to oil as a fuel source for heating and power. The Maritime Rights Movement was formed to promote policies to support the Maritimes.
Regional Protest Farmers began to raise concern of the National Policy for 1878. It placed duties or tariffs on foreign goods imported into Canada. It was done to strengthen the economy. Farmers felt alienated because it benefited the manufactures in central Canada, while forcing the farmers to pay for more expensive machinery.
Regional Protest Farmers received no such protection because they had their goods sold on the open world market. Farmers wanted free trade to allow for them to buy cheaper farm equipment from the US. They also wanted lower freight and storage fees. Neither the Liberals or the Conservatives wanted to meet the demands, so the farmer began creating their own political parties Regional Protest
1920s, Ontario and the prairies had elected members of United Farmers Parties to their legislatures, and some formed the provincial government. 1919 the Progressive Party was created led by Thomas Crerar. They wanted a new National Policy based on free trade and public ownership. Canadians Choose a New Government 1921 federal election brought about a different type of government for Canada.
Mackenzie King was the new Liberal leader, and his government won the election with enough seats to hold a minority government. Mackenzie King now had to work with the opposition members in order to pass legislation. The Progressive party was successful in using this to their advantage. They were able to get Mackenzie King to pass the Old Age Pension Act in 1927 Their success was short lived. Canada's Growing
Independence PM Borden had taken a number of steps in the post war years to increase Canadas profile internationally. Mackenzie King pushed for greater independence once elected. 1922 King refused to support Britain in an invasion of Turkey. 1923 he insisted that Canada be able to sign an international treaty without a British signature of a representative. Canada's Growing
Independence The King-Byng Crisis 1925 election the Liberal needed the support of the Progressive party to stay in power. The following year they lost the support because of a liquor-smuggling scandal in the Customs Department. The conservative called for a motion of censure (vote of strong disapproval) If the motion passed King would have to re-sign as PM. King went to Governor General Viscount Byng asking for an election. Canada's Growing
Independence The King-Byng Crisis Byng refused King on the grounds that the vote of censure had to be completed first. King was furious and Byng eventually called the election first. King campaigned appealing to nationalist sentiments saying it was undemocratic to have a official of British appointment refuse to take advise from a PM. King won the election and no Governor General has ever went against the wishes of a elected PM since. Canada's Growing
Independence The Balfour Report 1926 at the Imperial Conference Canada and the dominions of the British Empire requested formal recognition of their autonomy. A committee was formed under Lord Balfour, a British politician to examine to request. The recommendations of the Balfour Report become law in 1931 when the Statute of Westminster was passed by British government. This transformed the British Empire into the British Commonwealth. All were now equal in status and united in a common
allegiance to the Crown. Canada's Growing Independence The Balfour Report Canada was now a country equal in status to Britain, and entitled to make its own laws. Two restrictions remained The BNA Act, Canadas constitution, remained in Britain because of the federal and provincial governments not being able to come up with a amending formula. The judicial court of appeal for Canada remained in
Britain until 1949. The Economy Improves Canada was in a state of economic depression at the start of the 1920s. By the middle of the decade the economy had started to improve. Wheat was still the major export, but exploration of natural resources and manufacturing played big role in the change for the positive growth in economics. Pulp and paper demand increased, and mining for lead, zinc, silver, and copper boomed.
Most were used in consumer goods like radios and home appliances. The Economy Improves It was the expansion of the forest and mining industry that increased demand for hydroelectric power. New hydro station were constructed providing cheaper energy. The United States Invests in Canadas Economy Prior to the war Canadas trade had primarily been with Britain. After the war Britain was deeply in debt and
the US emerged as the new economic leader in the world. 1920s US investment in Canada increased. US companies invested in pulp and paper mills and mines across Canada. 75% of all newsprint produced was exported to the US. The United States Invests in Canadas Economy Instead of lending money to Canadian businesses, the US companies preferred to set up branch plants. This differed from the British way of things.
This allowed the US to avoid having to pay Canadian tariffs on good produced. 1920s seen the Canadian automobile industry taken over by the Big Three. General Motors, Ford, Chrysler. US companies owned high proportions of Canadas oil business, about half the machinery and chemical industry, and over half the rubber and electrical companies. The United States Invests in Canadas Economy
Many were happy with the situation at hand. The US enriched Canadas economy by extracting raw materials and transporting them to the US for processing and manufacturing. The US benefits the most from this development. Bootlegging Across the Border During WWI prohibition was made legal in Canada. Those with money could still obtain it, be it from a doctor
as a tonic, or from a bootlegger. Prohibition soon failed in Canada because it was unpopular with most Canadians, and war veterans had become accustom to the European relaxed ways of drinking. By 1921 most provincial governments had decided to regulate the sales of alcohol. A series of plebiscites eventually had government controlled liquor outlets adapted. Bootlegging Across the Border
Prohibition continued till 1933 in the US. Rum-running become a fact of everyday life. Ships from the Maritimes and Quebec, speedboats from Ontario, trucks and cars from the prairies, and fishing boats from BC all transported liquor to the US. Rum-running was extremely profitable. Canadians looked at rum-runners with tolerance and admiration for how the dodged the US authorities. Bootlegging Across the Border
The Canadian government seemed content with turning a blind eye to the situation. Many rum-runners were not successful and got caught, or died during one of their adventures. Urbanization Because of the growth in the manufacturing sector, cites began to grow with people searching for factory work. Farms were becoming more mechanized, and less manual help was needed. 1931 city dwellers outnumbered rural populations for the first time in Canada.
This is were the modern Canadian city started to take shape. Urbanization Business and industry located in city centers making them undesirable to live in. Most poor and working class people lived in these areas where conditions were crowded and unsanitary. Smoke stakes from factories polluted the air. Those that could afford it lived in tree lined residential areas.
Cars and street cars made this possible for them to access the business district without difficulty. The Role of Women The 1920s was thought to be a new era for women in Canada. There were hopes for reforms in health education, and womens and children's working conditions. 1921 only five women ran for office and only Agnes Macphail won her seat.
She was the only women in the House of Commons till 1935. Nine women were elected in the western provinces to their legislatures. Government was still predominately male dominated. The Role of Women A womens principle role was as a house wife and mother. New labour-saving appliances helped to free up time for women, but this back fired as now they were to maintain
a higher standard of cleanliness. Not all could afford these new consumer goods. Married women were to stay home and raise a family, and non married women had limited opportunities as careers. Nursing and teaching were open to women but paid poorly. Few were doctors, lawyers, professors, or engineers. Most women in industry were secretaries, telephone operators, or sales clerks. The Role of Women The Persons Case
Emily Murphy was appointed a magistrate in Alberta. Her appointment was challenged on the basis that the BNA Act stated that only persons could hold thus office, and women were not persons by law. The Supreme Court of Alberta ruled that she did have the right to be a judge. The famous five, which included Murphy challenged PM Mackenzie King to appoint a women senator.
The Role of Women The Persons Case April 1928 the Supreme Court of Canada ruled that women were not persons under the constitution. The famous five appealed this to the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council in Britain and they ruled in support of women on October 18, 1929. A New Prosperity The economy was starting to boom in the 1920s. Canadians could participate in the decade know as the roaring twenties.
People bought cars and radios, and went to the movies. Fads from the US began to spread quickly through Canada. American tourism in Canada took off. A New Prosperity Jobs increased as people found work in the railways, hotels, and holiday resorts. 1929 4 million Americans spent $300 million vacationing in Canada. It averaged to $75 per person.
A New Prosperity With the American tourism come the influence the tourists had on Canadians. Fashion flooded Canada form the US. Men: Straw hats, form-fitting-double-breasted suits, bell-bottom pants, bow ties, and slicked down hair. Women: the flapper look, bobbed hair, hemlines above the knees, silk stockings, and dresses promoting the flat chested look. Increased Mobility During the 1920s the automobile began to
take off. Henry Ford had the invention of the assembly line and began mass producing cars inexpensively, and quickly. Model T Ford: one was produced every 3 minutes and cost $300 or less. He paid workers higher than normal in return for having no unions in his factories. Canada only had 1600km of good highway in 1920. This increased ten fold by the end of the century. Increased Mobility
Most good roads ran south to the US because of big physical barriers like the Rockies and the Canadian Shield. This delayed the construction of the TransCanada Highway. The Idea of roads running north-south to the US forced BC to adapt to driving on the right side of the road in 1927. Prior to this it was on the left like Britain. Increased Mobility The arrival of the first drive-in restaurant come in Vancouver in 1928. White-Spot.
Aviation become more common in the 1920s with the arrival home of war veteran pilots. These pilots become bush pilots flying in supplies to logging camps, or taking geologists and prospectors over land to scope mining opportunities. Increased Mobility Pilots also flew in times of need for people in rural areas, or helping the
RCMP. Wilfred May flew delivering an antitoxin to treat a diphtheria outbreak in northern Alberta Flew through a snow storm in an open cockpit and landed on a frozen lake with no skis. May also flew the RCMP through the North on the greatest manhunt in Canadian history for Albert Johnson, the Mad Trapper.
Improved Communications Telephones had become a standard house hold appliance. Line were shared by neighbors, so eaves dropping become a way of entertainment. Radio become a popular way to spread the news, and was a way to break down the isolation barrier between communities that were distances apart. It brought popular culture into Canadian homes. Small Canadian stations found it hard to compete with
the larger US ones. Approx. 300, 000 Canadians listened to radio by the end of the 1920s. Improved Communications The movies soon become a rival for the entertainment of the radio. At first they were silent films with subtitles and a orchestra or piano player providing sound effect for the silent screen. 1927 talkies arrived which included people like Laurel and Hardy, and the Marx Bros. Canadian made movies were more common in the early
days, but could not compete with US made Hollywood films. Many Canadian actors, writers, and technicians were drawn to Hollywood, and many become successful. Mary Pickford was born in Toronto and become know as Americas Sweetheart. A New Canadian Art Us influence increased coincided with the development of a new Canadian art movement in the 1920s. 1920 the Group of Seven held an exhibition in Toronto that broke with traditional Canadian art. The painters used new post-war national confidence as
inspiration, and broke from traditional realistic classic styles, and used broad, bold strokes, and bright colors to interpret Canada's rugged landscape as they saw it. They were criticized in the beginning as hot mush painting, but accepted by the end of the 1920s. A New Canadian Art Emily Carr She was the best know painter from the west coast. Victoria She painted scenes of West Coast forests and Aboriginal life. In the beginning she gained little recognition until she had
her work displayed in a show at the National Museum in Ottawa, with the show being built around her art work. Her she first saw the Group of Sevens art work and was inspired by the bright colors and images. She was also a writer winning a Governor General Literary Award for Klee Wyck, a collection of stories about her life with aboriginal people in BC. Sports as Popular Entertainment Spectator sport become of major interest to Canadian for entertainment.
People spent time listening to the radio listening to a baseball game, or hockey. Foster Hewitt broadcast his first hockey broadcast in 1923. Boxing and rugby were popular, along with curling and golf. Sports as Popular Entertainment Canadian athletes excelled internationally. Percy Williams won two gold medals in 1928 in sprinting at the Olympics.
Ethel the Saskatoon Lily Catherwood won gold in the high jump at the Olympics. Canadian hockey team cleaned up winning gold medal by large margins. Except 1936 during the war. Charles Gorman held 7 world speed skating records, and John Myles set a new record for the Boston Marathon. Changing Social Attitudes Moving away from Victorian values, attitudes and values were slowly becoming more relaxed
Missing the Roar Economics and social conditions were improving, but their were still Canadians that dealt with the harsh realities poverty and racial discrimination, and had a lack of political representation. Aboriginal Nations Aboriginals saw little of the good coming out of the 1920s. The veterans returning saw that their contributions to the war changed little in the way aboriginal peoples were looked at.
Aboriginal peoples were still not seen as people under law. They could not vote in provincial or federal elections. Provincially 1949, and federally 1960, aboriginal people gained the vote. Aboriginal Nations Social and economic conditions were poor on reserves, and those seeking employment in the cities faced discrimination and hostility. Residential schools experiences were life changing for most aboriginal families. The people running the school were meaning well, but
many students come out traumatized by the separation from family, the foreign settings, and physical and emotional abuse. Some adapted to the new life they were taught but others could not find work or acceptance in the new Eurocentric culture. Aboriginal Nations Villages were told to replace traditional and family leaders with grads from the residential schools. This often divided communities.
1920s Aboriginal people of BC challenged the federal government on the issues of the potlatch ceremony, cutoff lands, and aboriginal title. Aboriginal Nations The potlatch was a important cultural ceremony used to record significant events in oral traditions. It was outlawed in 1884 because the government saw this as an obstacle to the assimilation of the natives. The government began to enforce this law after the war and arrested chiefs responsible,
and many were sentenced to jail. Kwagiulth in 1920. Aboriginal Nations Aboriginal title become an issue for the aboriginal people, especially in BC. Most of the land in BC had not been assigned through government treaties. Land had been set aside for reserves. The government began to take land away from the reserves without the consent of the aboriginal people. Aboriginal people wanted claims to this cut-off land.
The federal government responded by changing the Indian Act to allow for transfer of reserve land without aboriginal consent. The Allied Tribes of British Columbia petitioned this to have the government begin treaty negotiations. Aboriginal Nations The government defended itself by saying that all the money spent on aboriginal peoples was compensation enough for the land taken. The Indian Act was amended to forbid the raising or acceptance of money to
pursue land claims. The governments believed it to be over, but the aboriginal people had other thoughts. African-Canadians: Undisguised Racism Entry for African-Americans had been discouraged during the pre-war years when immigration into Canada was booming. Those who did get in found that discrimination was blatant and brutal.
Nova Scotia Education Act of 1918 allowed for separate schools for blacks and Europeans. It remained in place till 1954. African-Canadians: Undisguised Racism Supreme Courts of Quebec ruled in favor of racially segregated seating in Montreal theaters. 1929 a black delegation was denied hotel rooms in Toronto when trying to attend the World Baptist Convention.
There were instances of tolerance. African-Canadians: Undisguised Racism 1924 the city of Edmonton refused to support an attempt to ban blacks from public parks and swimming pools. 1919 the Brotherhood of Railway Workers accepted black porters as members in their union, being the first to abolish racial discrimination. The Ku Klux Klan had a brief and short lived existence in Canada where they
set up local branches. Immigration The war had created tension between different ethnic and cultural groups in Canada. Most Russian and Eastern European immigrants were accused of being socialist revolutionaries. The government made attempted to have them deported. The government had immigration
restrictions which gave preference to British and US applicants. Immigration Some Canadians wanted restrictions on immigration and others did not. Farmers, railway owners, and other businesses welcomed the idea of immigration because the immigrants would work long hours for low pay, and would take jobs that most Canadians did not want. Labour groups opposed this and supported the idea of immigration restrictions because they saw the willingness of some to work long hours at low pay as
unfair competition. Either way the reasons become selfish. Immigration Restrictions were placed on Asian immigrants. 1923 the Chinese Immigration Act was replaced with the Chinese Exclusion Act to stop immigration from China. It was repealed in 1947.
A Canada-Japan agreement in 1922 restricted immigration to 150 servants and labourers from Japan a year. Things began to change as the economy began to improve around 1925. Immigration Restrictions were lightened on immigration from many countries. This was done to try and increase the population for businesses who had larger domestic markets for goods.
Those that did land in Canada found themselves looking for jobs, and many landed in company towns or city slums working in terrible conditions for low wages. The Stock Market Crash The later half of the 1920s had big economic booms. Canadas richest man, Sir Herbert Holt, was calling for unending economic growth. Tuesday October 29, 1929 the New York Stock Exchange collapsed.
The Stock Market Crash On the day of the collapse the prices fell dramatically. The order for traders was to sell, sell, sell! 23 million shares changed hands, and prices continued to drop. It was now clear that disaster had happened. The stock market crash marked a clear shift from prosperity to poverty. With the end of the roaring twenties come the depression of the 1930s.
The Stock Market Crash Stock Market Crash Video Clip.
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