BRAIN - Weebly

BRAIN - Weebly

N I A R B Compiled and Created by Sally C. Shoemaker BRAIN Reviewing Essential Concepts and Skills in Language Arts The purpose of this unit is to twofold. 1. First, we must refresh our brains by reviewing the standards in

Literature, Informational Texts, Writing, and Language. 2. Second, we must exercise our skills in each area to build success muscles. E.Q. How does an author use characters and plot to create effective stories? Authors use characters and plot to create effective stories. A character is a person, animal, or other creature in a story. The main character is the character that the writer focuses on the most. This character has to solve the central problem in the story. Character & Plot Characters have traits, or qualities, that tell the reader what kind

of person they are. These traits may change as events in the story occur. The plot is the sequence of events in a story. The conflict is a problem in a story that needs to be solved. Character vs. Character, Character vs. Self, Character vs. Nature, and Character vs. Society Character & Plot Characters and the conflict are generally introduced in the beginning of the story. The main character and supporting characters are part of the plot and contribute to the conflict, the rising action, the climax, and the resolution. In the middle of the story, the action rises and the characters

try to solve the conflict. Character & Plot Near the end of the story, there is a climax, or action that helps the characters resolve the conflict. It is the highest point of the action. A resolution is the way a conflict is solved at the end. A good story shows how a character changes throughout the plot. Character & Plot Jenna stood backstage, going over the notes in her mind. Her flute solo would only be five minutes long, but they would be the most important five minutes of her life. For years, Jenna had been the shyest student in the school. She sat in the back of every class and never volunteered an answer to a

question. She found it very painful to make eye contact with people, especially any teacher she had. Then Ms. Diaz had come to Jennas middle school to teach music. Jenna always loved music, and it was extremely difficult for her to get herself to volunteer and sign up for flute lessons, even though it was something she had always wanted to do. But she signed up, worked hard, and practiced until she became the best flute player in the school. As she slowly gained confidence in her ability to play the flute, she became a more confident person. She knew she could do this solo without a problem. She had practiced more hours than she could even keep track of. Youre on, Jenna, a voice whispered from behind the curtain. Without hesitation, Jenna stepped into the floodlight on stage. Main Character Supporting Character Character Trait Conflict Resolution Change

Stretching Max hated sitting in the front of the bus because it always meant the same thing his little sister, Penny, would want to sit next to him. Max wanted to show that he was a big kid at school now and that he didnt have to sit with little first graders. But today was a stormy and miserable day. Penny had always been afraid of thunder for as long Max could remember. When the school bus stopped to pick them up that morning, Penny was crying and shaking with fear. Why does there have to be a thunderstorm on the way to school? Max thought. But he looked down at Penny and felt bad for her. I guess a big boy means taking care of the little kids, he thought. They both got onto the school bus together, and he sat right next to her with his arm around her shoulder. How does Max change in order to resolve his conflict?

Stretching Your Turn Page 25 1-2 Todays Callisthenic: Sit Ups Pages 26-27 Numbers 1-5 Complete These in Your Journal E.Q. How does point of view effect the eye of the story? A point of view is the way a narrator tells a story.

A narrator is the person who tells the story. First-person point of view is when a character tells a story using the pronoun I or we. The story is told by one of the characters in the story. I looked up and down the aisle at all the packages of rice. Mom will never believe me when I tell her that they are out of her favorite brand! Point of View Third-person point of view is when the narrator tells the story using the pronouns they, he, or she. There are two kinds of third-person narration. Third-person omniscient point of view is when the narrator knows everything about the story, including the thoughts, feelings, and actions of all of the characters.

Aaron stared at Evan, wondering why he was being so mean. Evan couldnt believe that Aaron couldnt understand his side of the story. Point of View Third-person limited point of view is when the narrator tells the story through the thoughts and feelings of only one character. Netavia opened her book with a nervous feeling. The class stared at her. She swallowed hard and began reading aloud. Point of View Second-person point of view uses the pronoun you. This point of view is rarely used in stories but is often used in poetry. Your trade was with sticks and clay,

You thumbed, thrust, patted, and polished, Then laughed They will see some day, Smith made, and Gibson demolished. from Youth and Art by Robert Browning Point of View After three days of arguing with her best friend, Aubrey was ready to make up with Layla. As hard as it was for Aubrey to admit it, she thought she was beginning to understand Laylas reason for being angry. Last Friday night, Aubrey was very late picking up Layla for the movies. Aubrey felt anxious and upset about being so late picking up her friend, but it seemed that Layla probably felt even worse. The girls got into a huge argument and didnt speak for days. Aubrey eventually realized that Layla thought she had forgotten about her entirely or was not picking her up to be mean. Aubrey felt sad and lonely without her best friend. She

picked up the phone to dial Layla. Maybe we can work this out, Aubrey thought. What point of view is demonstrated in this example? Stretching Greg knocked at the door softly. When it opened, an angry face looked back at him. Greg was frightened, so he muttered an apology and started to leave. Oh, youre selling candy for school, the man said. Then he smiled and added, Sorry to be rude. I thought you were someone else. Id love to buy some! Is the narrator a character in the story? What does the narrator know about the other characters? From which point of view is this paragraph written? How do you know?

Stretching Your Turn Page 31 1-2 Todays Callisthenic: Pull Ups Pages 32-33 Numbers 1-5 Complete These in Your Journal E.Q. How does an author use theme to communicate purpose for writing? A theme is a main message or lesson in a text. A theme

expresses a general statement that goes beyond the specific events of the text. Many times a theme is not stated directly in the text. More commonly, the reader must figure out the theme. Some stories have more than one theme. Be true to yourself. Hard work pays off. Good triumphs over evil. Always do the right thing.

Theme and Summary The Theme can sometimes be determined from the characters actions. Jason found the latest action figure at the toy store, but he didnt have enough money to buy it. He was one dollar short. Worst of all, this was the only figure available. He knew that if he left the store, someone else would surely buy it. He needed to come up with a plan. Jason took the figure off the rack and went to the aisle that had the toddler toys. He stashed the figure behind a box of a kid toy and left the store. A worker noticed what Jason had done and put the action figure back in its proper place. A few minutes later another boy entered the store with his uncle and bought the action figure. When Jason returned later, he was shocked to discover that the toy was not where he had left it! The worker told Jason that he could have asked the clerk at the register to hold the toy until he came back. But since he dishonestly tried to hide the toy, the worker felt it was not fair to anyone else who wanted to buy it. What theme might this story express?

Theme and Summary A summary is a short retelling of a text in the readers own words. A summary should include the main idea and the most important details. It may also include the theme. A summary should not include the readers opinion or judgments about the passage. Theme and Summary Wrong Way Jason is a selfish and dishonest kid. He wanted to buy the last action figure, but he was one dollar short. He hid the action figure so no one else could buy it. But a

store employee noticed what Jason had done and returned the toy to its proper place. Another boy bought the toy. The boy came in with his uncle, so the uncle must have had enough money to buy the toy. Jason was foolish for thinking he could stash away the toy and return later. What was he thinking? Doesnt he realize that the employees fix and arrange the shelves all the time? He should also know that actions have their consequences. Right Way Jason hid an action figure in a store and thought he could return later to buy it. But a store employee replaced the action

figure so that another customer could buy it. When Jason returned to the store and discovered that the figure had been sold, he learned that actions have consequences. Stretching Luis rolled his wheelchair onto the basketball court for the first time. The rest of the team couldnt believe their eyes. Coach had told them that the new student in school would probably be the teams star and help them win games all season long. This was Coachs secret weapon? The students wondered how Luis could even get himself across the court, let alone handle making baskets during fast game play. Some of the players sighed in disappointment. Another year in last place, they thought. But as soon as the

whistle blew and the ball was in play, Luis was the fastest, most skilled, and definitely the most talented player on the court. He managed to keep the ball in play and make three baskets before the end of the first quarter. What is the theme? Stretching Your Turn Page 37 1-2 Todays Callisthenic: Push Ups Pages 38-39 Numbers 1-5 Complete These in Your Journal E.Q. How is figurative language used to make writing more colorful?

An author can choose to use different language when writing. Literal Language is language that means exactly what it says. There were dozens of bees in the hive. Figurative Language is language that does not mean exactly what it says. Instead, figurative language implies, or suggests something else. Types of Figurative Language Figurative Language Idiom

Metaphor Personification Simile Definition Example Meaning A saying or phrase whose meaning is different from the

individual words that make it up A comparison that is implied or suggested without using like or as Those hats are a dime a dozen. Those hats are available anywhere. Jeannie is a fountain of knowledge.

Jeannie knows a lot of information, just as a fountain holds a lot of water. Giving human qualities to an animal, object, or idea The chair felt sad and lonely when Uncle Joe was not sitting in it. Uncle Joe sits so much

in the chair, they are practically companions. A direct comparison of one thing to another using the word like or as The womans face looked as wrinkled as an old paper bag. The womans face is old and lined with wrinkles.

Stretching The snow continued to creep up my windowsill like an uninvited guest, peeking in, affecting my concentration, and overstaying its welcome. What kind of figurative language is used in the sentence? How do you know? Stretching Your Turn Page 43 1-2 Todays Callisthenic: Crunches Pages 44-45 Numbers 1-5 Complete These in Your Journal

E.Q. How do text structures help the reader interpret the text? There are different kinds of literature, and each kind is organized in its own special way. A text structure is the way an author chooses to present information. A texts structure helps tell the setting of a story. The setting of a story is the time and place that a story occurs. Literary Text Structures One kind of literature is a story or book. A book is a long story written in sentences and paragraphs. The text structure of a book is often organized by chapters.

A chapter is a division of a book into logical parts. Chapters can be numbered and have names to tell what they are about. Each chapter may have a different setting or purpose, but they each connect and build on each other to help express the theme. Literary Text Structures Another kind of literature is poetry. Poetry is literature written in lines with creative language that often includes rhythm and rhyme. The structure of a poem is organized by stanza. A stanza is a group of lines that make up a verse, or one unit of a poem. Each stanza helps contribute to the theme of the poem.

Literary Text Structures Another kind of literature is a play or drama. Drama is literature that is meant to be acted out. Whereas books are divided into chapters, plays are divided into scenes. A scene is a part of a play with a particular setting. Each scene leads to the next, and they build on each other to tell the plot just as the chapters of a book would. Each scene takes place in a different setting with a different interaction among characters Literary Text Structures Within a texts structure, an author may use literary devices to help tell the story or express ideas. A literary device is a technique used to produce a specific effect on a reader.

A literary device can help tell a story in an interesting way. Literary Text Structures One kind of literary device is a flashback. A flashback is when there is a pause in a story to describe an earlier event. Flashbacks give the reader additional information about a story or character. Literary Text Structures Another device is foreshadowing. Foreshadowing is a clue about what is going to happen later in a story. For example, a character on his way to explore a famous cave reads a newspaper article about strange events that

have happened in that cave in recent months. Later in the story, the character has a scary experience in the cave. By having the character read the article earlier, the author foreshadowed what was to happen later. Literary Text Structures Joanne listened to the roar of the wind and the beating of the rain against the windows. The rainstorm had knocked out the power just as Joanne was about to eat dinner. The food sat on the table as Joanne stumbled around the house, lighting candles and closing windows. Last week her cousin Ben had asked her to housesit for him while he went on vacation. Its a great country house, Joanne. Peaceful, remote, and theres a fireplace. One time the power went out, but only for a couple of hours, Ben had told her. It sounded great to her at the time, but

right now Joanne wished she were back in her city apartment. What literary devices do you see in this paragraph? Stretching We entered Aunt Rachels restaurant through the back kitchen entrance because we knew exactly what she would say if she saw us come through the main door during the lunch rush. Last week she had told Heather and me that seeing noisy teenagers walk through the front door would scare away the business crowd that was searching for a quiet, adult atmosphere. It was really easy to put Aunt Rachel into a bad mood while she was serving the lunch crowd. Ah! My favorite niece and nephew are here, Aunt Rachel yelled from the kitchen as she saw us come through the back door. How would you like some pizza this afternoon? I looked at Heather and winked.

What literary devices to you see in this paragraph? Stretching Your Turn Page 49 1-2 Todays Callisthenic: Curls Pages 50-51 Numbers 1-5 Complete These in Your Journal E.Q. How can comparing and contrasting texts help me understand what I am reading? When you compare two passages or texts, you tell how

they are alike. When you contrast two passages or texts, you tell how they are different. Comparing and contrasting information in stories, poems, and articles can help you better understand what you read. You can compare and contrast elements of the same passage, such as different ways two characters reacted to the same situation. Comparing & Contrasting You can compare and contrast elements of different passages, such as the topics covered. You can also compare and contrast theme, characters, setting, and genre.

For Example: The story of Pinocchio is similar in some ways to the story of Cinderella. Both main characters want to escape from their real worlds and be someone they are not. Both get a little help from magical characters to change their lives for just a little while. Comparing & Contrasting A genre is a kind of writing. Some genres of fiction include adventure, mystery, historical narrative, and fantasy. An adventure story has a plot with a lot of action in which the characters go on a journey. A mystery has a plot in which a puzzle, riddle, or crime must be solved.

A historical narrative is a made-up story set in a real time in the past and includes characterizations of real people. A fantasy includes many elements that could not happen in real life and occur in places that may not exist. Comparing & Contrasting Sometimes, stories in different genres can be compared if they are about similar things. For example, a mystery about a missing dog might be compared to an adventure story about a dog journeying through the state to return home to its owner. The stories are examples of different genres, but they may have similarities that connect them.

Comparing & Contrasting Even different kinds of literature, like fiction and poetry, can be compared and contrasted. A Farmers Thoughts The meadow grass blows; My horse and buggy halts; I take a view of the fields On the wide-open prairie. This country is new May it give us what we need. The land is our provider. Lending a Hand to Our Land

Jake cant wait to use his new crop irrigation system. He bought it from a farmers supply store in the city, and many farmers gave it rave reviews. Jake has begun to rely on these modern technologies to keep his business afloat. Relying on the earth to provide us with our riches can be a risky endeavor. A little technology can go a long way down on the farm! Can you compare these by theme? Setting? Characters? When you compare and contrast literature, you can see how two seemingly different things actually have a lot in common. You can also see how two things that seem similar at first can have many differences between them.

Stretching Bill and Sue are pen pals. They write letters to one another, telling each other what is happening in their lives. Bill lives in Tempe, Arizona, near the university. Sue lives in Topeka, Kansas, in the middle of the country. Bills parents own a hotel, and Sues parents are farmers. Sue likes the countryside because she can ride horses and go camping. Bill likes his town because there are many places to go skateboarding. In what ways are Sues and Bills interests similar? In what ways are they different? Stretching Your Turn Page 55-56 1-3

Todays Callisthenic: Squats Pages 57-59 Numbers 1-5 Complete These in Your Journal E.Q. How can making inferences help me read between the lines? An inference is an educated guess based on evidence in the text and a readers prior knowledge. A good inference makes sense and is backed up by details in the passage. When you make inferences as you read, you can get a richer experience and understand the message, theme, or story better.

This is often referred to as reading between the lines. Making Inferences When you make an inference, you should be able to find evidence in the text that supports what you think. For example: You might read about a character who carries an umbrella and has a frown. Although it is not directly stated, you can infer that it is raining outside, using the umbrella as evidence. You also know from your own experience that you carry an umbrella when it rains. You can also infer that the character is sad, using her frown as evidence. You may go one step further and infer that the rain has made the character sad.

Making Inferences Most often, you will make an inference about how a character feels, and what makes the character feel that way. You may also make an inference about a characters traits based on his or her actions. If you read about a character who cheats on his tests, copies his friends homework, and pretends to be sick to get out of class, you may infer that he is lazy and dishonest. The author may not use these actual words in the passage, but when you are asked to make an inference about the character, you can use these actions as evidence. Making Inferences

You can also make an inference about a characters actions. For Example: The character may have a reason for being lazy and dishonest. You may infer that he does not suffer any consequences for his actions. Making Inferences Geoff tenderly touched his left cheek and groaned. He wondered how long it would be before someone called his name. This is what he got for skipping those after-dinner brushings. Suddenly, he heard a cry from behind a door. Geoff shifted in his seat and touched his cheek again. If ever a place needed soundproof walls,

this was it. Based on your prior knowledge and experience, what is Geoffs problem? Where is he? How does he feel? What clues do you have in the paragraph that help you to make these inferences? Stretching Stephen looked up at the deserted house and tried to imagine that he never took the dare in the first place. Now, with his friends Octavio and Will standing next to him, there was no turning back. Go on, buddy, Will said with a broad grin. Octavio patted Stephen on the back. Yeah, what are you waiting for? Octavio and Will gave each other a glance. Will added, Hey, dont worry. If you back out, we wont think youre a chicken or anything.

Last week, accepting the dare to spend fifteen minutes in the house seemed a lot less threatening. Now he felt like a character in a bad movie. Just then a police car pulled up in front of the house. I hope you boys are not thinking of going in there, he said sternly. This house is abandoned for a reason. The roof is about to fall in. Please leave the property and go home. The three boys ran away just in case the roof decided to collapse at that moment. What inference can you make about Stephen? Stretching Your Turn Page 63 1-2 Todays Callisthenic: Lunges

Pages 64-65 Numbers 1-5 Complete These in Your Journal MILE RUN #1 Pages 66-71 Numbers 1-10 Complete This Quiz on Your Own Paper E.Q. How can identifying main ideas and supporting details help me to understand new information? A main idea is the most important idea in a text. It is what a passage is mostly about.

A supporting detail is a fact that describes, explains, or strengthens the main idea of a text. Main Idea & Supporting Details Entering middle school can be both a fun and difficult time in a students life. Students have the chance to make new friends, join clubs, and gain more independence. There are usually activities such as dances and school trips. On the downside, not all students adjust quickly to their new situation. They may have trouble making friends. Some struggle with the greater workload and difficulty of the assignments. Middle school often brings increased social pressure, like choosing the right clothes. For many students, middle school is a balance between the good and the bad. What is the main idea in this paragraph? What supporting details can you identify?

Main Idea & Supporting Details A summary is a short retelling of a text in the readers own words. A summary includes the main idea and the most important details from the passage that support the main idea. A summary does not include the readers opinion about the passage. Main Idea & Supporting Details Here is a summary of the paragraph we read:

There are positive and negative things about entering middle school. The positive things include meeting new friends and taking part in fun activities and clubs. The negative things include adjusting to new situations and having extra work and responsibilities. Main Idea & Supporting Details What would you include in a summary of this paragraph?: The United States flag is not just a random design of stars and stripes. It has a symbolic design that represents our nations past and present. The thirteen stripes on the flag represent the thirteen original colonies. The fifty stars represent the fifty states that are part of our country today.

STRETCHING Thomas Jefferson was such a lover of reading that he had a collection of thousands of books in his home at Monticello. In fact, when the Library of Congress was burned by the British during the War of 1812, Jefferson was able to sell his collection to Congress as a replacement. The Library of Congress is the largest collection of books in the world. It was Jefferson who helped to organize the books by a number system that categorized them by their subject instead of alphabetically by their titles. Today the Library of Congress remains the most important collection of books in the world. What is the main idea of this passage? What are the supporting details? Stretching

Your Turn Page 85 1-2 Todays Callisthenic: Sit Ups Pages 86-87 Numbers 1-5 Complete These in Your Journal E.Q. How can understanding text structure help me interpret information? Text Structure is the way an author chooses to present information. There are many ways to present nonfiction information, and authors choose their text structure based on their topic.

Common text structures include: Cause and Effect, Sequence, Compare and Contrast, and Problem and Solution. Text Structures A cause and effect text structure gives the reasons and outcomes for events. A cause is a person, thing, or event that makes something happen.

An effect is the result of a cause. The British rule had increased taxes on the colonists several times. As a result of these taxes, the colonists planned the Boston Tea Party to show their anger and their independence. The most serious result of the colonists anger, however, was the outbreak of the Revolutionary War. Cause? Causes? Effect? Effects? One cause may have several effects, and several causes may have just one effect. What words are hints? Text Structures Another structure is sequence, which is chronological, or time, order. Chronological order is the most common sequence structure in

nonfiction. Biographies, procedural texts, and recounts of specific events use the sequence structure. Betsy Ross was born as Elizabeth Griscom on January 1, 1752. She was taught by the Quakers and after school worked in her fathers business. In 1773 she married John Ross, and in 1776 she was asked to perform one of the most important jobs an American could do sew the first American flag. What words are hints to order? Text Structures

Another common text structure used in nonfiction is compare and contrast. This structure tells how two or more things are alike and different. To compare means to tell how things are similar. To contrast is to tell how things are different. Words such as like, unlike, different, opposite, same, and similar clue readers that they are reading text with a compare-and-contrast structure. Butterflies and moths are alike in many ways. Both are insects. Both have three body parts, six legs, wings, and antennae. They are also different from each other. Butterflies have slimmer bodies than moths and are usually more colorful. Butterflies have a round knob at the end of the antennae. Moths have feathery antennae. Butterflies are active during the day. Moths are active at night. What words are hints to this structure?

Text Structures Problem and solution is another text structure. In this structure, an obstacle, or a challenge, must be overcome or a problem must be solved. The problem is the difficult situation, obstacle, or challenge. The solution is the answer to the problem. In the 1800s, many people wanted to move west as the eastern United States grew crowded. The problem was that it took months to cross the United States by wagon or horse. To solve this problem, the first continental railroad was built. Now people could move in much less time. Text Structures Another way an author thinks about presenting information is how the

whole text is put together. A text may be written in paragraphs. Each sentence in the paragraph should be related to the information presented. All the paragraphs then should fit together and relate to the main idea of the text. A very long informational text may be separated into chapters. The chapters should fit together and relate to the main idea of the entire book. Stretching On March 30, 1867, Secretary of State William H. Seward arranged to buy Alaska from Russia for $7.2 million. However, there were many critics of the deal. Even though the United States had paid roughly two cents per acre for the land, many Americans

argued that this price was much too high. Another cause of peoples complaints was that Alaska was far removed from the rest of the United States and was viewed as a frozen wilderness. They thought buying Alaska was a folly, or foolish act. As a result, the deal became known as Sewards Folly. However, history would show that Seward was not a fool. In 1968, oil was discovered in Alaska, leading to the construction of the Alaska Pipeline. Since 1977, more than fifteen billion barrels of oil have flowed through the pipeline. Today, Alaska celebrates Sewards Day on the last Monday of March. What is the text structure of this passage? How do you know? Stretching Your Turn Page 91 1-2

Todays Callisthenic: Pull Ups Pages 92-93 Numbers 1-5 Complete These in Your Journal E.Q. How can multi-step instructions help me complete a task successfully? In social studies or science texts, an author must sometimes explain how something is done. This is called steps in a process. The author might explain the steps to describe how a bill becomes a law. It might be a step-by-step instruction about how a Native American group made their home or how they made goods, such as clothing and baskets.

Look for key words such as first, next, then, and finally that indicate steps in a process. STEPS IN A PROCESS In texts that explain the steps in a process, the authors opinion is not given, and the history of the topic is not explored. The text simply states the process step by step. In science texts, the author must sometimes explain how a process of nature works or how to do an experiment. STEPS IN A PROCESS

Multistep instructions tell a reader how to make or do something. Many multistep instructions are numbered and include only the text needed for the instruction. STEPS IN A PROCESS There are several steps that a letter handled by the United States Postal Service must go through before it reaches its destination. First, the person leaves the letter in a mail drop-off point, such as a public mailbox or at a local post office. Next, a mail carrier empties the box and delivers all of the contents to a central location where letters are sorted by their zip codes and ultimate destination. Then, the letters are transferred to the post offices closest to their destinations. The letters are then sorted again according to their addresses. Finally, a mail carrier delivers the letter to the addressee.

STEPS IN A PROCESS To make your own temporary compass, follow this set of instructions. 1. Carefully rub a three-inch sewing needle against a bar magnet a few times, always in the same direction. 2. Pierce the needle through the center of a cork, from the top to the bottom of the cork. 3. Place the cork and needle on its side in a bowl of water so that it floats. 4. Do not touch the cork again. It will move at first and then finally stop when the needle faces magnetic north. 5. The charge of the magnet moves to the needle, and the needle becomes magnetized temporarily. Notice that the steps are written in order. This allows the reader to follow the steps one at a time, from beginning to end. Sometimes explanations can be given before or after the instructions to explain the process or to tell why it must be done in a certain way.

stretching 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. How to Show Why the Sky is Blue Gather the following materials: a clear glass or plastic bottle with straight sides, water, milk, measuring spoons, and a flashlight. Add water until the container is three-quarters full. Add one teaspoon of milk. Shake or stir the container until the milk dissolves to form a solution. Turn on the flashlight and turn off the lights in the room. Hold the flashlight above the

container as if it is the sun shining directly down through the atmosphere. Notice that the liquid looks blue. The milk is like dust in our atmosphere. It scatters the light, which is made up of red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, and violet waves. Only the blue light can be seen in this experiment in the same way that only blue light can be seen in our atmosphere. Why does the explanation of the activity come at the end of the activity? Stretching Your Turn Page 97 1-2 Todays Callisthenic: Push Ups Pages 98-99 Numbers 1-5

Complete These in Your Journal E.Q. How is reading scientific and technical texts different from reading literary texts? Scientific and technical texts are texts that include science lessons, scientific experiments, and instruction manuals. When you read a manual that tells you how to set up or use your cell phone, you are reading a technical text. This kind of text uses very specific, or precise, vocabulary that you may not see when you read anything else. Scientific and Technical Texts Some manuals use symbols to indicate when an action must be taken on your part to set something up.

Other symbols indicate when you are about to do something that could be dangerous. Numbered diagrams may help to familiarize the reader with the parts of a technical device such as a computer, a video camera, or an ice cream maker. Capital letters sometimes call out certain features or buttons. Scientific and Technical Texts Read the following technical text. 1. To start the phone, hold the POWER button down until the screen lights up and the company icon appears. 2. Press the MENU button to make the main menu appear. 3. Choose one of the following features: PHONE, E-MAIL, VIDEO, WEB, or TEXT. 4. Follow this guide to find the instructions for each of the above menu

options. PHONE E-MAIL VIDEO WEB TEXT p. 2 p. 3 p. 4 What devices are used in this text to aid the reader?

p. 5 p. 7 Scientific and Technical Texts Word Choice is an authors selection of words to create a particular meaning. Good word choice is not about using fancy or complicated words. It is about choosing the right words for what you are trying to say. Scientific and technical texts require that word choices fit the topic being discussed. Scientific and Technical Texts Subject Area-Specific Words

Technical Science Social Studies download hypothesis electorate activate

prediction primary election domain data culture calibrate analysis

political Scientific and Technical Texts When a scientist works in the field, he or she must write accurate records of observations. It is these written observations that will become the basis for analysis as well as scrutiny by colleagues. For example, if a scientific observation of gorillas in their natural habitat does not include the date, time, and physical description of the habitat, including temperature and weather conditions, the data is much less useful than if it had these important markers. What important word choices did the author make in this paragraph? These words are the accurate, precise words for the subject area. Stretching

Chopsticks are tools used for eating in many Asian cultures, in the same way that Americans use a fork or a spoon. The correct way to use chopsticks is to hold them toward the wider end. There are basic rules for using chopsticks. You should never pierce food with a chopstick. This is considered very offensive. You should also never point your chopsticks at someone or move food with chopsticks. This is considered very rude. If you need to move food from your bowl to another persons bowl, turn your chopsticks around. This way you are not touching the food with the part of the chopstick that has been in contact with your mouth. Why is this paragraph considered a technical text? Stretching Your Turn Page 103 1-2

Todays Callisthenic: Crunches Pages 104-105 Numbers 1-5 Complete These in Your Journal E.Q. How are graphics used to convey information? A graphic is an image that helps you better understand the written information in a text. Some graphics will have captions. A caption is a small amount of text that explains what is shown in the graphic. In a social studies text, some graphics you will find are pictures, maps, and timelines. Graphics A picture gives a visual representation of what

something looks like. A picture can be a photograph or an illustration that shows you important people, places, events, or things from history. Graphics In social studies, you also learn where places, such as cities and counties, are located. A map is a drawing of a location. The map below shows the location of streets in Lancaster, Pennsylvania. You can see the locations of several historic sites.

Graphics A timeline is a list of events organized by date. A timeline can be a bulleted list that is read from top to bottom or a line with marked dates read from left to right. Graphics You will also see graphics in a science text. Some common graphics are flowcharts, diagrams, and tables. A flowchart shows the sequence of events. A science text may use a flowchart to show the steps in a process, such as the flow of energy. The sun sends out light and heat to Earth.

The suns light and heat help plants grow. Animals eat plants. Graphics A diagram is a drawing with labels. A diagram can help clarify written information in the text. It can also provide extra information that is not discussed directly in the text. A diagram helps show the parts of something.

Graphics A table is a chart that shows information in columns and rows. Tables can quickly summarize information. A common table found in science texts is the Mohs scale of mineral hardness. Mineral talc gypsum

calcite fluorite apatite feldspar quartz topaz corundum diamond Hardness 1 2 3 4

5 6 7 8 9 10 Stretching The most distinctive feature of our solar system is the eight planets that orbit the sun. Each planets distance from the sun contributes to the planets physical features. For example, the planets close to the sun have higher temperatures than those that are farther away. According to the

diagram and the paragraph, which is MOST LIKELY to be the coldest planet? Explain your answer. Stretching Your Turn Page 109-110 1-3 Todays Callisthenic: Curls Pages 111-113 Numbers 1-5 Complete These in Your Journal E.Q. How does an author persuade an audience?

Sometimes an author will write to persuade an audience of his or her opinion. An authors argument is the way an author presents an opinion in writing. Authors arguments use persuasion, which is a way to change how a reader thinks, acts, or feels about something. Authors Argument In science and social studies texts, an author may make claims that help to support an argument. The author must support these claims with reasons and evidence. With a text that uses persuasion, it is important to distinguish what is fact and what is opinion.

Authors Argument A fact is a statement that can be proved to be true or false. There are fifty states in the United States of America. An opinion is a statement that cannot be proved. Not everyone will agree with others opinions. Hawaii is the best state to live in. Authors Argument When an author gives an opinion, he or she may show bias, which means that the writer is prejudiced toward one point of

view and tries to sway the reader to accept it. Propaganda techniques are ways that a writer can use bias to convince the reader of a certain point of view. Authors Argument Propaganda Technique Bandwagon Inclusion or Avoidance of Particular Facts Loaded Language Definition convincing a reader to do something because

everyone else is doing it mentioning only facts that will help to persuade people to your opinion language that appeals to emotions rather than reason Example Dont be the only one who doesnt support our cause! Forty percent of the students complained about the program within the first

three days. This will be a life-changing event. Authors Argument Facts and opinions are often used in advertising to convince a person to buy or do something. But these techniques can also be found within historical and scientific texts. Authors Argument Think about the great health benefits of fruit. Fruit is made up of 80 percent water, and water is needed for healthy bodies. Fruit

has no bad cholesterol, which is also very good news for our bodies. Many people say that fruit is good brain food and that it helps people think more clearly. Fruit also contains fiber. Fiber is good for digestion. Fruit always makes people feel better, too. In this paragraph, facts are presented in a persuasive way, and no negative information or facts are included. The last sentence is an opinion because it states what the author believes. However, some people have fruit allergies, and eating fruit would actually make them feel worse. Authors Argument In 1967, a man named Steve Juneau came up with an idea to promote the city of Gonzales, Louisiana. He loved how area cooks prepared jambalaya. Jambalaya is a tasty Cajun-Creole dish with a delicious blend of meats and flavors. Why not use this dish to draw people to Gonzales? Thats how the annual Jambalaya Festival came to

be. In 1968, the governor of Louisiana named Gonzales the Jambalaya Capital of the World. That same year, the first festival was held. Thirteen cooks competed for the title of World Jambalaya Cooking Champion. About 15,000 people attended the festival. There were pots of jambalaya, a carnival for the children, and live music. Everyone had a wonderful time. Over time, the festival grew in popularity and reputation. One recent festival drew over 50,000 people. The paragraph uses mainly facts, such as dates and peoples names, to present the information. The paragraph also uses emotional, loaded language, such as delicious and wonderful, to persuade the reader to believe that the festival was a wonderful idea and a great success. Where do you see opinion in this paragraph? stretching Littering rivers causes the water to become polluted. Pollution harms the fish, plants, and animals that live in or near the river. The plants and

animals can get sick and even become extinct. We all need to remember that we are not alone on this planet. We are not the most important species on Earth. What we do affects other living things. If an animal depends on a particular plant for its food, and that plant is no longer around, that animal will have to find another food source or die. We must always be mindful of how our actions affect other living things on the planet. What is the authors argument? How do the facts in the paragraph support the authors argument? Stretching Your Turn Page 117 1-2 Todays Callisthenic: Squats

Pages 118-119 Numbers 1-5 Complete These in Your Journal E.Q. How can you determine the authors purpose in an informational text? An authors purpose is the reason an author writes. One reason an author might write is to inform the reader about the topic. There are two types of informational sources primary and secondary. Comparing & Contrasting Informational Texts A primary source is a firsthand account of a topic of interest or an event.

Historical documents that are created by the people who lived through an event are primary sources. Common primary sources include journals, diaries, interviews, letters, speeches, news film footage, autobiographies, memoirs, poetry, drama, music, and art. A primary source is usually written in the first-person point of view. The first-person point of view uses the pronoun I. One example of a primary source is The Diary of Anne Frank. Comparing & Contrasting Informational Texts A secondary source is a document that gives information about a person or event in history but is written after the events have occurred. Authors often use primary sources to put together a secondary source.

Secondary sources often interpret or analyze primary sources. Common secondary sources include magazine articles, encyclopedias, textbooks, book reports, biographies, and books about nonfiction topics. A secondary source is written in third-person point of view. The third-person point of view uses the pronouns he, she, or they. One example of a secondary source is a magazine article that a reporter writes about the life of Anne Frank. Comparing & Contrasting Informational Texts You can compare and contrast information from different sources to tell how they are alike and different.

Remember that to compare means to tell how things are alike. To contrast means to tell how things are different. Comparing & Contrasting Informational Texts Mrs. Bixby, Boston, Massachusetts: DEAR MADAM: I have been shown in the files of the War Department a statement by the Adjunct-General of Massachusetts that you are the mother of five sons who have died gloriously on the field of battle. I feel how weak and fruitless must be any words of mine which should attempt to beguile you from the grief of a loss so overwhelming. But I cannot refrain from tendering to you the consolation that may be found in the thanks of the Republic they died to save. I pray that our Heavenly Father may assuage the anguish of your bereavement, and leave you only the cherished memory of the loved and lost, and the solemn pride that must be yours to have laid so costly a sacrifice upon the altar of

freedom. Yours very sincerely and respectfully, Abraham Lincoln Comparing & Contrasting Informational Texts Abraham Lincoln led the country at one of its most difficult times. The American Civil War was a time of great heartache for many families. They lost their loved ones on the battlefield, and both sides were fighting for the same country. Lincoln felt overwhelmed by the pride and dignity that many soldiers exhibited. He would write personal letters to family members to thank them for the service their loved ones gave to the country.

Comparing & Contrasting Informational Texts You may not know the name Josh Gibson, but he was the greatest hitter in the history of baseball. He is often called the black Babe Ruth because he was able to hit long home runs. Some feel that Ruth instead should be called the white Josh Gibson. It was not unusual for Gibson to hit the ball more than five hundred feet. Gibsons records are not remembered in major league baseball because he played for the Negro Leagues. Gibson was born in Buena Vista, Georgia, in 1911. His first love was always baseball. He started his career when he was asked to step into a Negro Leagues game after a catcher hurt his finger during a game. Some people said, by the end of his career, Gibson hit as many as eighty-four home runs in one season. No one knows for certain because the Negro Leagues could not afford to hire someone to keep the records. What kind of source is this passage? How can you tell?

Stretching Your Turn Page 123-124 1-3 Todays Callisthenic: Lunges Pages 125-127 Numbers 1-5 Complete These in Your Journal MILE RUN #2 Pages 128-134 Numbers 1-12 Complete This Quiz on Your Own Paper E.Q. How can I convince someone to agree with me?

Persuasive writing tries to convince the reader of the writers argument. A writers argument is his or her opinion on a topic. Arguments are often made in advertisements, editorials, letters, essays, and speeches. Writing Arguments A persuasive essay starts with an introduction. An introduction is the first paragraph of an essay, in which the main idea is presented. An introduction includes a topic sentence, a sentence that gives the main idea of the essay or paragraph and some general information that is expanded on later in the essay.

Writing Arguments When writing an argument, give a clear statement of your position, topic, or point of view. Use language that is appropriate for your audience. Give evidence or examples that will support your position. You might even use emotional language that appeals to peoples feelings. In many arguments, the writer will acknowledge the claims of the opposing side and give reasons why those claims are incorrect or unreasonable. A formal writing style is often most appropriate for making an argument. Writing Arguments An argument can be organized by cause and effect, compare and contrast, or problem and solution.

Based on your text structure, you should include transition words and phrases. A transition is a shift from one idea to the next. Your word choice can help you make smooth transitions between ideas and concepts being discussed. Common transitions found in an argument include first of all, for example, I feel, in my opinion, on the one hand, and on the other hand. Writing Arguments In my opinion, Ms. Nolan, my science teacher, has the qualities that make a good role model. First of all, she is sincere and wants her students to gain an interest in science. She is also aware. She understands that some students have trouble grasping the subject matter, so she works to make the material interesting and clear. Ms. Nolan schedules extra office hours after school so students can figure out where and why they made errors. Also, Ms. Nolan has a terrific sense of humor, so her class always includes a good dose of fun. One time I was frustrated and confused

about the homework, and Ms. Nolan cracked a joke that made me laugh so hard I cried. An argument ends with a concluding section or statement. A conclusion recaps the main idea of the whole essay and supports the information presented. Because Ms. Nolan is sincere and helpful and is aware of her students needs, she truly deserves to be named Teacher of the Year. Writing Arguments Organizing your thoughts with a graphic organizer can help you include all the points you want to make in your writing. A graphic organizer can help list evidence or data that will make your argument stronger. Why Ms. Nolan should be Teacher of the Year

brings fun to classroom sincere and helpful aware of student needs presents science in interesting ways has great sense of humor

has extra office hours Stretching Your Turn Page 144 1-2 Todays Callisthenic: Sit Ups Pages 145-147 Written Responses Complete These in Your Journal E.Q. How do I tell the difference between argumentative and informative texts? An informative text presents and explains information.

Informative texts include newspaper articles, research reports, travel guides, and how-to articles. When you write an informative text, you should clearly introduce your topic and develop it with relevant facts and details. Research is an investigation of facts and details about a topic. Writing Informative Texts An author can use books, interviews, or online sources to conduct research. Some informative texts use graphics, such as charts and tables, and headings to separate the work into sections. All of these features help the reader to comprehend the text.

Writing Informative Texts An informative text can be organized by sequence, cause and effect, compare and contrast, or problem and solution. Based on your text structure, you should include transition words or phrases. A transition is a shift from one idea to the next. Common transitions in an informative text include another, as a result, due to, first, however, later, and unlike. Your word choice can help you make smooth transitions between ideas and concepts being discussed. When writing an informative text, you should use a formal language style. You should NOT include personal opinions. Writing Informative Texts In this paragraph about Hatshepsut, a female leader of ancient Egypt, notice

that the language is formal, and only facts are given. Hatshepsut was one of the few female rulers of ancient Egypt. She was a princess and the wife of the pharaoh, or king. When her husband died, her ten-year-old stepson was supposed to become pharaoh. Hatshepsut said that he was too young to rule on his own. She was named coruler. She ruled for about fifteen years, until her death in 1458 BCE. Writing Informative Texts An informative text ends with a concluding statement. A conclusion recaps the main idea of the whole essay and supports the information presented. Ancient Egypt did not have many female rulers, but Hatshepsut was one of them.

Writing Informative Texts A graphic organizer can help you collect the information for your text. The graphic organizer below shows how the writer collected his thoughts before writing the paragraph about Hatshepsut. The writer decided to use a cause-and-effect pattern that tells what happens as a result of an earlier event. CAUSE EFFECT Hatshepsuts husband was an Egyptian Pharaoh. Hatshepsut was an Egyptian princess.

Hatshepsuts husband died. Hatshepsuts ten-year-old son became pharaoh. The boy was too young to rule. Hatshepsut was named coruler. Stretching Your Turn Page 150 1-2 Todays Callisthenic: Pull Ups

Pages 151-153 Written Responses Complete These in Your Journal E.Q. How is a narrative text different from argumentative and informative texts? A narrative text tells a story. Fictional pieces such as novels, short stories, poems, and plays can be narrative texts. Nonfiction pieces such as biographies and autobiographies can be narrative texts. Writing Narratives Narrative texts include characters, a setting, a plot, and a conflict or problem that needs to be resolved.

Good narratives have a beginning, a middle, and end. Descriptions of characters and dialogue between characters help make the story more effective. Writing Narratives When organizing a narrative, it helps to follow the plot in order from beginning to end. Stay focused on your main idea or theme. Details and vivid language will help the reader imagine the storys setting. Describe each characters personality, thoughts, feelings, or appearance. Writing Narratives

I was simply frightened out of my skin when I arrived at summer camp the first morning. I had never stayed away from home before, and I wasnt exactly looking forward to the experience. But it was sink or swim for us campers, literally. I met Lori, Carla, and June on the way to rowing class. Our teacher put us together in one boat, and we did our best to stay afloat. That is, until we flipped over and landed right in the lake! About six camp counselors came diving, swimming, and boating to our rescue. I know it sounds strange, but their rescue made me feel a bit comfortable and at home at the camp. I felt like I was going to be safe with the counselors. They really cared about us kids! Setting? Conflict? Middle?

End? Beginning? Solution? Writing Narratives Filling out a graphic organizer can help you plan your narrative. The best kind of graphic organizer to use for narrative writing is a sequence chart. Look at this graphic organizer for the narrative about camp. Beginning I arrived at camp frightened. Middle

I met Lori, Carla, and June, and our rowboat flipped over. End The camp counselors came to the rescue, leaving me with a much better feeling about camp. Stretching Your Turn Page 156 1-2 Todays Callisthenic: Push Ups Pages 157-159 Written Responses Complete These in Your Journal E.Q. How do I improve my writing through revising and editing?

There are several steps to the writing process. The first step is to plan your writing. After planning your writing, the next step is to write a draft. A draft is a first attempt at writing, which may include errors in organization, content, and mechanics. After you finish your draft, you revise and edit. Revising, Editing, & Publishing Revising is the process in which writers review what they have

written to be sure it is clear, effective, and well organized. Additions Deletions Word Choice Sentence Order Information & Details Revising, Editing, & Publishing Editing is the process in which mistakes are corrected to ensure the writing follows standard English conventions. Spelling Punctuation Capitalization Sentence Structure

Revising and Editing often happen at the same time, as an author reads and reviews what they have written. Revising, Editing, & Publishing A writer will revise and edit his or her work so that it is ready for the publishing stage. He or she should add transitional words or phrases, such as in addition, furthermore, and as a result, to make the ideas flow better. Publishing means sharing a finished work with others. Revising, Editing, & Publishing Clear and coherent writing develops ideas, organizes facts and

details, and uses appropriate word choices for the audience. Sometimes this kind of clear writing cannot be accomplished the first time the writer makes a draft. It may take a few revisions to get the language and information across clearly and efficiently with the appropriate style and tone. Revising, Editing, & Publishing Sometimes writers review each others work and give each other guidance and support when editing and making revisions. Teachers also help students develop their writing and maintain a consistent style and tone. Writing Partners Peer Editing Writing Conferences

Here are some things good writers look for when revising and editing their work. What to Look For What It Means Bad Example Good Example consistent style and tone The use of the same kind of language and tone throughout a

passage, such as formal or informal language The trumpet has been a respected instrument in the brass family for centuries. Toot, toot, play it! The trumpet has been a respected instrument in the brass family for centuries. Its vibrant sound is easy to recognize.

precise vocabulary The use of specific words rather than general ones to convey your ideas. This drink is good. This apple cider is delicious. sentence clarity Sentences need to be clear and easy to understand. Avoid using

too many words. The thing they thought they were going to do they ended up not doing, even though they thought they would do it. They didnt do what they thought they were going to do. sentence order Sentences should appear in the order that makes the most

sense, often starting with a clear topic sentence. It grows to no more than forty inches tall. The Shetland pony is a very small breed of horse. The Shetland pony is a very small breed of horse. It grows to no more that forty inches tall. sentence variety Make your sentences look

different. Try not to start two or more sentences the same way, and do not use the same word too many times. Dean went to look for them in the library. Then Dean went to look for them in the gym. Dean went to look for them in the library. Then he checked the gym. Revising, Editing, & Publishing

(1) Plants adapt to their habitats, or where they live. (2) For example, burdock plants create seeds with sticky hooks. (3) The hooks cling to the fur of animals that carry the seeds to other places. (4) An adaptation is a body part or feature that helps living things survive under certain conditions. (5) The stem of the cactus plant has a hollow barrel shape that can store water. (6) This is important to life in the desert. (7) The cactus is also covered with long, sharp thorns to keep animals away. (8) Some animals, like the snowshoe hare, use skin or fur coloring to protect themselves. (9) The hares white fur makes it hard for other animals to see it in the snow. (10) Color adaptations can also warn people and animals to keep away. (11) The bright color of certain animals, such as snakes, can signal that they are poisonous. How can you rewrite the beginning of the paragraph so that it starts with a sentence? Where should it go? Would you change the order of the sentences?

clear topic Stretching Your Turn Page 163 1-2 Todays Callisthenic: Crunches Pages 164-165 1-5 Complete These in Your Journal E.Q. How can I use appropriate resources to research a topic for writing?

Research means to gather information about a topic. In nonfiction writing, research is an important stage. A resource is something that can be used to help you research a topic. Print resources such as encyclopedias, nonfiction books, and articles in magazines, newspapers, and journals can help. Online resources included trusted Web sites and electronic databases. Make sure the sources you use are current and reliable. Research & Resources Resource What It Is

Almanac Books of facts published each year, with lists of important events that occurred that year. It also has current facts and figures on many subjects, from sports to currency exchange. Atlas Book of maps dealing with a particular country, state, or region. There are also atlases of the entire world. Encyclopedia Alphabetical listings of topics with a short, factual article on each. Can be one long book or a series of

books. Internet Network of online resources such as dictionaries, library catalogs, and Web sites. Educational sites, which end in .edu, are generally good to use. Look for sites that are written by experts or reliable groups. Daily or weekly publication with reports on local, national, and international events, as well as opinions and features. Newspaper Nonfiction Book

Book on specific subject based on facts. Nonfiction books are usually written by experts on the subjects. Periodical Weekly, monthly, and quarterly publication about a topic. Examples are magazines. academic journals, and newsletters. Textbook A book containing factual information about one field of study. Often covers many topics in a general way. Research & Resources

When you research a topic and use resources for your report, you must give credit to the source where your information came from. Be sure to include the names of your sources in a bibliography, or list of sources used for a report or written project. Research & Resources When quoting from a source, you must use quotation marks and credit the source in a footnote. As Smith states in his book, the table is an underrated invention. Smith, Inventions, page 82. Research & Resources

When you paraphrase, you put someone elses words into your own words. Original Sentence: Many people know the story of George Washington chopping down the cherry tree, but this may be a tall tale with no basis in fact. Paraphrased Sentence: George Washington probably never chopped down a cherry tree, but the story persists until this day. Although paraphrased ideas do not need to be put in quotation marks, they do need to be credited in the bibliography. If you are unsure about the reliability of one of your sources, use a second resource to double-check the information. Then include both resources in your bibliography. Research & Resources

Here are some examples of how to list your sources in your bibliography. A Book by a Single Author Strauss, Martha. A Single Guide to Cajun Cooking. Chicago: Blue Garnet, 2003 A Book by More Than One Author Jones, Eva and Mike Stewart. A History of Great Inventions. New York: Hansen, 2007. An Encyclopedia Entry Jupiter. Encyclopedia of Earth and Science. New York: Riverville Publishing, 2010. A Magazine Article Jackson, Shazia. Where to Bowl in the City. On the Go. 18 March 2009: 11-14. Stretching

A pelican is a type of water bird. Its telltale feature is the pouch under its beak. Pelicans also have webbed feet and long narrow beaks. They eat fish, so they tend to live near large bodies of water. They are commonly found in coastal regions or near rivers, though they do not like polar climates. There are several different species of pelicans found on every continent besides Antarctica. Fossils show that pelicans have existed for over forty million years. What kind of resource did this paragraph MOST LIKELY come from? What information would someone need about the resource in order to credit it in a bibliography? Stretching Your Turn Page 169 1-2

Todays Callisthenic: Curls Pages 170-171 1-5 Complete These in Your Journal MILE RUN #3 Pages 172-176 Numbers 1-8 and the Essay Complete This Quiz on Your Own Paper E.Q. How can I identify and use pronouns correctly? A pronoun is a word used in place of a noun. A pronoun can be used as a subject of a sentence or an object

of a sentence. A subject pronoun takes the place of the subject in a sentence. I, you, he, she, it, we , they He likes to play chess. Pronouns An object pronoun takes the place of an object in the sentence. me, you, him, her, it, us, them Grandpa played twenty questions with us. An antecedent is the word that a pronoun refers to. Pronouns

Pronouns should always agree with their antecedents in number, person, and gender. Number: The Wilsons had a difficult journey. Incorrect: It had a difficult journey. Correct: They had a difficult journey. Person: Incorrect: If you want to read the novel, he can get it at our library. Correct: If you want to read the novel, you can get it at our library. Gender: Esther Forbes loved history as a child. Incorrect: He loved history as a child.

Correct: She loved history as a child. Stretching Correct these sentences if needed. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. He wants to be the first student to finish her test. Jake and me begged our teacher for a longer recess.

Janie brought some lunch down to the lake for Mom and me. Will you please give that book back to my brother and she? I wont answer Janets question until she raises she hand. If you want to see the play, he must arrive early. When Maxine and I ran in the race, it wore our favorite sneakers. 8. She and he are my best friends. Pronouns A possessive pronoun shows ownership. A possessive pronoun can be used alone, or it can be used to describe a noun. Used Alone: mine, yours, his, hers, ours, theirs

Those gloves are mine. Used to modify a Noun: my, your, her, his, its, our, their My pen is on the table. Pronouns An intensive pronoun ends in self or selves and emphasizes a noun or pronoun. It takes the place of the antecedent in a sentence so that the same word does not have to be repeated. A reflexive pronoun also ends in self or selves. So how do we know the difference. An intensive pronoun can be removed from the sentence

and the sentence still makes sense. A reflexive pronoun cannot be removed from the sentence. The cat amused itself by chasing its tail. Mr. Diamond himself presented the award. Pronouns A vague pronoun is one that has no clear reference to a noun it replaces. Jenny was happy with her grades. It made her brother jealous. The pronoun it does not refer back to the nouns Jenny or grades. It refers to the whole idea that Jenny was happy. You can fix vague pronouns by writing the sentence in different ways. The fact that Jenny was happy with her grades made her brother jealous.

Jennys brother was jealous because Jenny was happy with her grades. Stretching Correct these sentences if needed. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Please give me back mine umbrella when you are finished with it.

You are my best friends. It makes me so happy! Lets go to their house after the movie. The wind made a scary noise through the trees. That was spooky. The girls will have to answer the questions themselves. I bought myselves a cute new pair of shoes. Dont think about taking the train today. It wont work. I think his problems will work itself out. Todays Callisthenic: Squats Pages 188-189 1-4 Complete These in Your Journal

E.Q. How do correct capitalization, spelling, and punctuation effect my writing? Capitalization is the use of uppercase letters in writing. Uppercase, or capital letters are used to start a sentence. They are also used to start proper nouns and the pronoun I. Capitalization Type of Proper Noun

Examples book and story titles A Wrinkle in Time, The Legend of Sleepy Hollow days and months events or periods holidays names of companies names of monuments and buildings

Monday, Sunday, January, October Great Depression, World War II Independence Day, Thanksgiving ABC Technology, Fountain Books Statue of Liberty, White House, Lincoln Memorial, South Paulding Middle School names of people Jorge, Luanna, Gregory, Maggie names of places Main Street, Atlantic Ocean, Chicago

titles of people Mr., Mrs., Dr., President, Queen Spelling Spelling is the accepted arrangement of letters in words. Word acceptable, changeable accommodate, committed Reason

People tend to end these words in ble, but the able ending is correct. The double m is often forgotten in these words, which already have double letters. foreign, leisure These words do not follow the i before e rule. independent, apparent People tend to use -ant at the end of these words, but the ent ending is correct.

judgment, argument People often forget to remove the e at the end of these root words before the suffix is added. Stretching Read and correct the following sentences if needed. 1. When Mr. conway heard our argument, he laughed at us. 2. Gerry and Sam do the best maintenence work at four corners Garage. 3. Should we see that foriegn film called camilla and jacques?

4. I think it is acceptable to ask Mr. Lewis to drive us to school. 5. The memorial day parade ocasionally starts a little late. 6. Who was your next door nieghbor on greene street? 7. After walking through the park by himself, Jake felt very independent. 8. Do you think the crack in the liberty bell is noticible? punctuation Punctuation helps readers understand sentences.

Each mark of punctuation has a role to play in the sentence. Punctuation tells the reader when ideas begin and end and when to pause. punctuation Punctuation How Is It Used Examples Comma (,) Separates words in a series, sets off words of dialogue,

or after an introductory phrase. Mom said, Our flag is red, white, and blue, so leave those crayon colors out for the children. Dash (-) Replaces commas or parentheses in more informal writing to set off phrases or indicate pauses. Use two dashes if the phrase is in the middle of a sentence and one if it is at the end. My best friend Sam is sick today.

Everyone was laughing at him except me. Exclamation Point (!) End sentences that express emotion. That was an earthquake! Parentheses () Encloses a word, phrase, or sentence that is not essential to the sentence. A sentence or paragraph must be grammatically complete without the phrase in

parentheses. Theres no way to get that door open (without breaking the lock), so wed better call for help. Period (.) Ends declarative and imperative sentences and is used in abbreviations. Mr. Woo read a book about America. Question

Mark (?) Ends sentences that ask questions. Who is that? Quotation Marks ( ) Encloses the exact words of the speaker. Carlos said, I have an idea. Stretching Read and correct the following sentences if needed.

1. Lori said You have to clean the dishes before we eat dessert. 2. There were so many people at your fundraiser good for you -! 3. We wanted to buy mom a (present) with our money. 4. We can borrow the chairs, tables, and plates for the party. 5. I have seen a lot of interesting (people since) I got here. 6. Please stand over there said Jimmy (who was becoming) angry. 7. Whenever anyone asks me that question anyone, I start to laugh.

8. This is the best (and funniest) show on television. Todays Callisthenic: Lunges Pages 194-195 1-4 Complete These in Your Journal E.Q. How can context clues help me determine the meaning of a word? A multiple-meaning word is a word that has more

than one definition. To understand which meaning the author intends, use context clues, or other words in the same sentence or paragraph. The part of speech of the word in the sentence is also a clue to the meaning of the word. Multiple-Meaning Words and Roots For Ralph, autumn was the perfect season to take nature hikes. The word season can mean to add flavoring to food. The word autumn, however, points the reader in a different direction. The word is also used as a noun in the sentence. In this sentence, season means a time of year.

Multiple-Meaning Words and Roots There are several context clues that can help you determine the meaning of a multiple-meaning word. The relationships of other words in the sentence can help. These include cause and effect, part to whole, and item/category. Multiple-Meaning Words and Roots Because Sara got low grades on both her spelling and math tests, she was somber. Based on the cause-and-effect relationship of how

someone usually feels when he or she gets low grades, you can determine that the word somber means sad. Multiple-Meaning Words and Roots A homonym is a word that is spelled the same as another word but has a different meaning. A homograph is a type of homonym that is spelled the same as another word but has a different meaning and pronunciation. Multiple-Meaning Words and Roots Word

drop fine object place rich state turn Meaning 1 to fall well, good a thing, purpose, or goal an area wealthy

areas within a country to change to something different Meaning 2 to stop doing something a penalty owed in money to be against to put something somewhere strong, as in flavor or smell to say something to move to face in a particular direction

Multiple-Meaning Words and Roots A root is a word part that gives a word its main meaning. Many words we use in English come from Greek or Latin roots. An affix is the beginning or ending of a word that can change the meaning of a root word. Multiple-Meaning Words and Roots Root Meaning

Examples alter other alternate, alteration audio of or related to sound audience, auditory

grate pleasing gratify, grateful jud to judge, or decide judicial, judge liter

letter literature, illiterate, literal mar of the sea marine, mariner, maritime min small

minute, miniscule, minority mut to change mutate, mutant photo of or related to light photography, photocopy, photojournalism

vic, vinc to defeat victorious, invincible In these examples, the root stays the same, but the affixes can change to change the meaning of each word. An Audience, for example, is a group of people who hear a performance.

Auditory means related to the sense of hearing. Audible means able to be heard. If you know the meaning of a root, you can figure out the meaning of the word with its affix. Stretching On Hectors eleventh birthday, he was given a really nice watch from his uncle. It was the watch he had wanted ever since he had seen it in a catalog months before. But, to Hectors surprise, there was something wrong with his brand-new present. He discovered a crack on the glass of the watchs face. The company would have to exchange it for a new

one. Hector knew he must be patient until the new watch came. When the package finally arrived, he couldnt wait to open it. As he untied the bow, Hector knew that the watch would be perfect this time. He took the watch out of the box and smiled from ear to ear. Hector had just received the coolest watch in town! How can you tell which meaning of the word patient the author is writing about? Give examples of the context clues that tell you. Stretching Your Turn Page 199 1-2 Todays Callisthenic: Sit Ups Pages 200-201 1-5 Complete These in Your Journal

E.Q. How can I determine the meaning of a word using denotation and connotation? A word can have two different kinds of meanings its dictionary meaning and its implied meaning. The denotation of a word is its dictionary meaning. The connotation is the implied meaning. A words connotation is made up of the feelings, memories, or images that come to mind when you hear the word. Denotation & Connotation The words house and home have the same general definition, or denotation. They both mean a place where someone lives.

However, many people associate things such as comfort, love, and family with the word home. The word home has a positive connotation. The word hovel is also a synonym for home, but it has a negative connotation. It connotes a lower level of quality. People prefer to live in a house but not a hovel. The word house has a neutral connotation, meaning it is neither positive nor negative. Denotation & Connotation The word thrifty can have a positive connotation.

But its synonym, cheap, usually has a negative connotation. Similarly, proud has a positive connotation, but its synonym, conceited, has a negative connotation. Denotation & Connotation Use a dictionary or a glossary to find the denotation of a word. young adj. 1. Being in the early or undeveloped period of life or growth. 2. Newly begun or formed. 3. Of or relating to youth or early life.

Denotation & Connotation A thesaurus can give you a hint about a words connotation by listing words that have the same feeling or tone as the one you are looking up. young adj. meaning: being between childhood and adulthood synonyms: adolescent, immature, juvenile, youthful antonyms: old, elderly, aged, mature, grown-up, adult, full-grown Denotation & Connotation Word frugal Denotation not generous; economical

stingy not generous car automobile jalopy automobile breeze

gale terrified moving air moving air afraid, scared petrified afraid, scared frightened afraid, scared

Connotation being careful with resources responsibly unwilling to share average automobile in good working condition automobile that is not in good condition refreshing wind destructive, powerful wind overwhelmed with fear paralyzed with fear; unable to act or move

lesser degree of fear, lasting for a brief moment Example Joys frugal father always had money set aside for a rainy day. John was so stingy that he only gave his brother one potato chip. Mark took his car to the mechanic. Jasons jalopy broke down on the interstate. The sea breeze on the beach was welcoming. A gale tore my flag to pieces. Lee was terrified as he was about to parachute for the first time.

The hiker was petrified when he noticed a mountain lion five feet away. The raccoon frightened Rachel when it jumped out of the garbage can. Stretching The front door slammed, and Rosalinda heard a voice call out, Im home! She hurried out into the hallway to greet her father. She was as excited as a five-year-old child on her birthday. Her father was bringing home a computer! Rosalinda ran to hug her father. Did you get it? Mr. Ramonov chuckled. Yes, I got it. The boxes are in the car. Lets go fetch them together. Rosalinda knew it would be her best birthday ever.

What is the denotation of the word slammed in the first sentence? Does the word have a positive or negative connotation in this passage? Stretching Your Turn Page 205 1-2 Todays Callisthenic: pull ups Pages 206-207 1-5 Complete These in Your Journal E.Q. How can I apply the rules of Standard English Usage to improve my writing and speaking?

The English language has many rules for writing and speaking correctly. Knowing these rules will help you avoid English language usage errors. When writing, it is important to write in complete sentences. A sentence fragment is an incomplete sentence. It may be missing a subject, or a verb, or a complete thought. Standard English Usage A sentence fragment does not make sense on its own because it does not contain an independent clause. An independent clause has a subject and verb and expresses a complete

thought. After we come back from the library. Into the next room. Some people who chatted and danced. Standard English Usage To avoid sentence fragments, be sure each of your sentences has a subject, a verb, an independent clause, and end punctuation. We have to take a test after we come back from the library. I just walked into the next room. Some people who chatted and danced missed the dessert. Standard English Usage

A run-on sentence has two or more independent clauses without correct punctuation to separate them. Everyone saw us come in late I was so embarrassed. Standard English Usage You can break run-on sentences into separate sentences so that each one has its own subject. You can also use a conjunction with a comma to make a compound sentence. Another way to fix a run-on sentence is to separate the two independent clauses with a semicolon. Everyone saw us come in late. I was so embarrassed. Everyone saw us come in late, so I was so embarrassed.

Everyone saw us come in late; I was so embarrassed. Stretching Read and correct the following sentences if needed. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. There is no one to open the store it does not open until

10:00. Forever unless you do something about it. Show the man your tickets sit by the main entrance. Start the grill; I can help you. The best way to answer your queries and concerns. I told her she was right about that she didnt believe me. Sufficient practice on the piano will help you play better. Laughter and good times for everyone. Standard English Usage Slang is very informal language or phrases that are not usually thought of as part of our regular language. Slang is often acceptable in speaking but not in writing, unless it is part of a characters dialogue.

groovy phat radical cool Standard English Usage A double negative is the use of two negative statements in the same sentence or clause so that they cancel each other and create a positive statement. Sentence Meaning

How to Fix It She didnt see nothing. She saw something. She didnt see anything. OR She saw nothing. I dont have none. I have some.

I dont have any. OR I have none. Standard English Usage Usage errors are errors in grammar. Use of the correct verb tense, word choice, and verb form are important. A participle is a word formed from a verb which can be used as an adjective. These are

created by adding ed or ing to a verb. Error Incorrect Correct Using the past tense instead of the past participle I should have went.

I should have gone. Using a participle instead of a verb tense I been out of school all week. I have been out of school all week. OR I was out of school all week.

Confusing adjectives and adverbs I feel good. I feel well. Using unacceptable words We aint going. We arent going. Stretching

Read and correct the following sentences if needed. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. You drew a well picture of the waterfall, dude. I aint going to no symphony with those students. She should have went with them. We wanted to tell the kids that they played a radical game today.

Lexi didnt see no people waiting at the bus stop. I dont feel well today, so Im going to relax at home. There been plenty of people to ask about the homework assignment. She wasnt thinking about anybodys feelings when she said that. Todays Callisthenic: Push Ups Pages 212-213 1-4 Complete These in Your Journal MILE RUN #4 Pages 214-218 Numbers 1-12 Complete This Quiz

on Your Own Paper E.Q. How can I demonstrate my skills and understanding of language arts concepts? 5K Race 220-255 Numbers 1-55

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