Respiratory Formulas Mike Clark, M.D. Mathematical Analysis of the Respiratory System 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

9. 10. 11. 12. 13. Ideal Gas Equation Boyles Law Charles Law Daltons Law of Partial Pressures Henrys Law Surface Tension

Examine Diffusion Formula Examine Compliance Formula Discussion of Pressure Discuss Flow velocity of flow versus rate of flow Discuss Resistance Laminar versus Turbulent Flow Wall Tension in Respiratory Pipes Ideal Gas Equation & Boyles Law PV = nRT P pressure V- Volume n- number of moles R- gas rate constant (8.314472 JK1) T Temperature

in Kelvin Boyles Law: There is an inverse relationship between Pressure and Volume. Volume is how much space a set amount (number of atoms or molecules) of gas or liquid occupies. If the volume (space occupied) got larger but the amount (number of atoms/molecules) stayed the same the pressure exerted by the gas or liquid would go down. Charles Law and Daltons Law Charles Law: There is a direct relationship between Volume and Temperature. When a gas is heated it

will expand PV = nRT Daltons Law of Partial Pressures: Each type gas in a mixture of gases will exert a pressure independent of the other types of gases in the mixture. The amount of the pressure exerted by each type of gas is in accordance with its percent present in the mixture times the total pressure exerted by all of the gases.

Daltons Law Atmospheric Pressure at Sea Level 760 mmHg/square inch (14.7 lbs./square inch) Composition of Atmosphere N2 78.0826% O2 20.94% CO2 - .034%

Daltons Law of Partial Pressures 760 mm Hg x .21 = O2 = 760 mm Hg x .0004 = CO2 = 159 mm Hg .30 mm Hg 760 mm Hg x .79 = N2 = 600.4 mm Hg Percent of other gases =

________________ Total 760 mm Hg Henrys Law The amount of gas that will dissolve in a liquid depends on the partial pressure of the gas above the liquid (push down force) and the solubility coefficient of the gas for the liquid (pull down force).

Solubility Coefficients of Gases in H2O (Determination of how much a certain gas likes a certain liquid) Oxygen --- 0.024 Carbon Dioxide - 0.57 (likes to dissolve in water the best) Nitrogen 0.012 Carbon Monoxide 0.018 Henrys Law Push down force pressure above the liquid How much does that particular liquid want to pull into itself that

Particular gas. (Determined by Solubility Coefficient) Water exerts a surface tension Surface tension is the elastic tendency of a fluid surface which makes it acquire the least surface area possible. Surface tension is the expression of intermolecular attraction at the surface of a liquid, in contact with air or another gas, a solid, or another immiscible liquid, tending to pull the liquid inward from its surface. Water sticks to water and the top of its surface is very, very tight all of this due to its trillions and

trillions of hydrogen bonds holding the water molecules tightly together. Surface Tension Surface tension allows insects (e.g. water striders), usually denser than water, to float and stride on a water surface The surface tension of water will cause the alveolus to collapse when the alveolus gets smaller during exhalation if it were not for surfactant (discussed earlier).

As radius gets smaller pressure increases. Ps = 2T/r T = Ps x r/2 Ps pressure in a sphere T Tension r - radius Formulas of Importance Diffusion net movement of certain particles from a region of high concentration of those certain particles to region of low

concentration of those certain particles D = A x Dc /t times the (Co Ci) A is the area of the membrane being diffused through, Dc is the diffusion coefficient, t- is the thickness of the membrane being diffused through, Co Ci is the concentration difference between the o (outside) and I (inside) of the container The diffusion coefficient = solubility coefficient divided by the square root of the molecular weight of the substance diffusing (this applies more to gases) Analysis- the greater the area and/or diffusion coefficient the faster the rate of diffusion. The more the concentration difference

the faster the rate of diffusion. However, the thicker the membrane to diffuse through the slower the rate of diffusion. Calculation of Diffusion Coefficient Solubility coefficients in H2O Oxygen --- 0.024 Carbon Dioxide - 0.57 (likes to dissolve in water the best)

Nitrogen 0.012 Carbon Monoxide 0.018 Molecular Weight of Gases O2 = 32 AMU N2 = 28 AMU CO2 = 44 AMU CO = 28 AMU Square Root of Molecular Weights O2 = 5.65 N2 = 5.29 CO2 = 6.63 CO = 5.29 Diffusion Coefficient O2 = .0042 N2 = .0022 CO2 = .0859 CO = .0003 Formulas of Importance Compliance C is the ease at which a container can stretch to accommodate increased volumes of gases

or liquids. C = V/P, P is change in pressure, and V is change in volume The more volume change without a change in pressure (due to compression of atoms and molecules in a minimally stretchable container) the greater the capacitance (compliance) Thus a balloon would have greater capacitance (compliance) that a leather container. Pressure Pulling or pushing force

Volume of gas or liquid Density of gas or liquid Pressure = Volume/1 X particles/volume X force/particle Pressure = force Mercury is 13.6 times more dense than water, so the same volume of mercury can exert far more pressure than water. Formulas of importance Flow = P/ R, P is the change in pressure from one area to another (P1 P2) in the direction of flow, R is the resistance (Note: pressure drops off as a fluid or gas passes further down the pipe thus the pressure in proximal area 1 (P1) is higher than the pressure

is distal area 2. The more pressure drop off the more the flow. Also, the less the resistance the better the flow. Rate of Flow = amount of gas or liquid/time (example ml/min) Velocity of flow = amount of gas or liquid/time/cross sectional area (another way of looking at it is Vf = rate of flow/cross sectional area) example of velocity of flow ml. /min per cm2 Note: Area of a circle (like the inside of a vessel ) = equals pi () times ) times the radius squared () times rr2), example ml. /min per cm2 Flow formula derived Ohms Law Rate of Flow versus Velocity of Flow The rate of flow is how much per some unit

time, for example ml./minute. The velocity of flow is how much per some unit time per cross sectional area, for example ml./minute/cross sectional area Lets think of it this way Lets compare a solid object to continuous substances like gases and liquids. A solid object has a discrete structure like a car; it has a definite beginning and end. Gases and liquids have a more fuzzy begin and end. A car traveling 25 miles/hour. It says how much distance (area), the time and how many one car.

A liquid flows at 25 ml./minute. It says how much (25 ml.), time, but no area. This is the rate of flow. If I said the liquid flows at 25 ml./minute/meter squared, that would be the velocity of flow. So gases and liquids have two measurements of flow: rate of flow and velocity of flow. Formulas of Importance Resistance a force of impedance (holding back) R = 8L/RL/) times R4 , L/R is viscosity of the gas or liquid, L is the length of the vessel, and R is the radius raised to the

4th power Summation () of Resistances adding up the resistors in flow arrangement a series arrange Resistors in series one resistor in front of another = R1 + R2 + R3 + Resistors in parallel a pipe leads into a branching set of pipes = 1/R1 + 1/R2 + 1/R3 +.. Note: resistors in parallel give less total resistance than those in series (think of the capillary arrangement) Resistance Resistance a force of impedance (holding

back) R = 8L/RL/) times R4 , L/R is viscosity of the gas or liquid L is the length of the vessel R is the radius raised to the 4th power ) times a constant Laminar Flow Versus Turbulent Flow Laminar flow, sometimes known as streamline flow, occurs when a fluid flows in parallel layers, with no disruption between the layers. It is the opposite of turbulent flow. In nonscientific terms laminar flow is "smooth," while turbulent flow is "rough."

Laminar Flow is a quiet smooth flow through blood vessels whereas turbulent flow makes a noise as it flows the more turbulent the flow the louder the noise. Turbulent flow produces murmur like sounds in the heart. A Bruit is the unusual sound that blood makes when it rushes past an obstruction (called turbulent flow) in an artery when the sound is auscultated with the bell portion of a stethoscope. A related term is "vascular murmur", which should not be confused with a heart murmur. Determining if flow is Laminar versus

Turbulent The Reynolds number is used to determine whether a flow will be laminar or turbulent. Reynolds number (Re) is the ratio of inertial forces to viscous forces and is given by the formula: Re = VD/ where = density of the fluid, V = velocity, D = pipe diameter, and = fluid viscosity. If Re is high (>2100), inertial forces dominate viscous forces and the flow is turbulent; if Re number is low (<1100), viscous forces dominate and the flow is laminar.

Wall Tension in Respiratory Pipes What is the technical term for high blood pressure? Hypertension Pressure in a pipe leads to tension (expandable tightness) on the walls of a pipe The higher the pressure more tension. How do we equate pressure to tension? See the next slide Respiratory Pipe Wall Tension Tension = Pressure inside vessel x r/ 2

r is radius of the vessel Interpretation: For a given blood pressure, increasing the radius of the blood vessel leads to a linear increase in tension. This implies that large arteries must have thicker walls than small arteries in order to withstand the level of tension.