BEOWULF Jot down a quick summary of the story, based on what you remember. Anglo Saxon Society Even when they adopted Christianity, they valued heroic ideals and traditional values Culture valued human contact, family, virtue, and a good story Valued heroic code over tribal loyalties
Feared humiliation and loneliness Desired richness, power, and valued heroic actions of warriors Heroic Code Warriors Strength, courage, loyalty Kings Generous to his thanes (warriors)
Show hospitality Strong political leader Anyone can become king Society A good reputation Characteristics of Epic Hero Is of noble of birth or high position; often of great historical or legendary importance
Character traits reflect important ideals of his society Performs courageous (sometimes superhuman) deeds that reflect the values of the era Actions of hero often determine the fate of a nation or group of people Characteristics of Epic Poem Setting is vast scope, often involving more than 1
nation Plot is complicated by supernatural beings or events and may involve a long, dangerous journey Poem reflects timeless values (ex: courage, honor) Poem treats universal themes (ex: life and death; good and evil) Major characters often deliver long, serious speeches
SIR GAWAIN AND THE GREEN KNIGHT Jot down a quick summary of what you remember from the plot. Codes of Honor What is a code of honor?
Why do they exist? Genre: Medieval Romance Usually idealizes chivalry. Idealizes the hero-knight and his noble deeds. An important element is the knights love for his lady. The settings tend to be imaginary and vague. Derives mystery and suspense from supernatural elements. Uses concealed or disguised identity.
THE CANTERBURY TALES What was the whole point of the story? What genre was Chaucer writing? Genre: Estates Satire The Norton Anthology of English Literature describes the duty of estate satire: "They set forth the functions and duties of each estate and castigate the failure of the estates in the present world to live up to their divinely
assigned social roles" (W.W. Norton and Company). The First Estate, the Church, consisted of those who ran the Catholic church and part of the country. They were the recipients of the tithe or the 10% tax given to the Church. The Second Estate, the Nobility, were royalty, not including the King. They were never taxed but could collect taxes from the Third Estate, and had other special privileges. The Third Estate, the Peasantry, is the largest consisting of around 96% of
the population (UCL), and included everyone from farmers to business men. They had none of the privileges or luxuries that the first two estates had. Genre: Parable What two things must parables include? What examples of parables can you think of? Genre: Relationship (Marriage) Tale What should relationship tales include?
What controversial topic did the Wife of Baths Tale discuss? Why/How is this still relevant today? Symbolism What symbols do you recall from the characters in the CT General Prologue? Irony Verbal: In general terms, sarcasm
Dramatic: The audience knows something that the characters in the literature do not. Situational Irony: When there is a discrepancy between what is expected and what actually happens. WHERE DO WE SEE THESE? GRAMMAR Sentences, Commas, and Semicolons
(See in-class materials for more info; this is not a complete review!) Sentence Variety To build sentences, use independent and dependent clauses. Independent: can stand alone as a sentence This is a simple sentence. Dependent: canNOT stand alone (it's a fragment!) Fragments annoying.
Sentence Variety The simple sentence is a single independent clause. This is a simple sentence. The compound sentence uses two independent clauses and combines them in a correct way. This is a simple sentence, and now it is a compound sentence. The complex sentence uses at least one independent clause and one dependent clause. Using an introductory phrase, you can create a complex sentence. Jennifer went to the store despite the rain. She needed milk, although she didn't need much else.
Sentence Variety Practice: Identify the types of sentences below. 1. Trevor enjoys jumping on trampolines. 2. Ferrets are really cute, so I hope to have one as a pet. 3. When I have a cat someday, I want to name it "Waffles." 4. After the show, everyone went to Red Robin for dinner. 5. Beware the trap! 6. Rome is the capital of Italy, but Vatican City is a separate city inside Rome's borders. Answers: 1. Simple
2. compound 3. Complex 4.ANSWERS complex 5. Simple 6. compound Semicolons Rules for Semicolons: 1. Use a semicolon to combine two closely related ideas. Correct: Thank you for coming; I'm so glad you're here!
Incorrect: Thank you for coming; I like ice cream. 2. Use a semicolon to separate items in a list. Correct: The following cities are involved in the study: Columbus, Ohio; Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; and Morgantown, West Virginia. I need to buy yogurt; milk; bread; bananas; and strawberries. Semicolons Practice: Add semicolons into the following sentences. 1. I don't believe in ghosts I don't believe in Big Foot, either.
; 2. Maria and Judy want to watch Ferris Bueller's Day Off ; Avatar: The Last Airbender and The Twilight Saga: Breaking ; 1. Dawn Part ; 3. Leslie is my best friend we do everything together!
4. Mom and Dad both play video; games they're the coolest parents ever!
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