Behavioral Biology - Lancaster High School

Behavioral Biology - Lancaster High School

Animal Behavior Chapter 51 Behavior Animal responds to stimuli Food odor

Singing Ethology Study of patterns of animal behaviors in nature

Ethology Proximate causation How the behavior works?? Ultimate causation What is the adaptive value to this behavior??

Behavioral ecology Study of the ecological & evolutionary basis for animal behavior Study of how natural selection

shapes behavior Innate Behavior Developmentally Preset fixed behaviors

behaviors Individuals in a species respond similarly Geese retrieving eggs Innate behaviors Fixed

action pattern: Sequence of unlearned behavioral acts that are unchanged Carried to completion Sign stimulus (key stimulus) Triggers the behavior Fixed action pattern

Stickleback fish Innate Behavior Fixed-Action Pattern: Begging behavior of new chicks Raised heads, open mouths, loud

cheeps Sign stimulus: Parent landing at the nest. Behavior

Taxis: Movement towards or away from stimuli

Positive taxis: Towards a stimulus Negative taxis: Away from a stimulus Kineses: +/- nonspecific movement due to stimuli Migratory behavior

Migration: Long distant change in location Migratory behavior Orientation: Following

a bearing Navigation: Ability to adjust that bearing Communication Signal: Behavior

causes a change in another animals behavior Communication: Reception & response of a signal Auditory, visual, olfactory(chemical), tactile signal

Courtship Leads to potential mates Species-specific Courtship

Bird of paradise Honeybees Waggle dance Pheromones

Chemical signals Animal communication Mating behaviors. Territorial behaviors Pheromones

Learning Modification of behavior based on experiences Non-associative learning:

Simple No association between two stimuli Between a stimulus & response Habituation Loss of responsiveness to

irrelevant stimuli. Imprinting

Sensitive period (critical period) Soon after hatching Important for normal parent/child behaviors Stimulation necessary for normal behavior

Premies Sexual behavior-mating Imprinting (Konrad Lorenz) Spatial learning

Memory based on environmental clues Digger wasps Learning

Associative learning: Association between two stimulus Stimulus & a response Behavior is modified (conditioned) through association

Associative learning Classical conditioning Pairing of two different stimuli Operant conditioning Associate behavioral response with a reward or punishment

Trial & error Classical conditioning Ivan Pavlov Dogs Food, salivate

Ring bell at same time Dog learned to salivate with bell ringing Operant conditioning B.F. Skinner

Skinner box Rats would bump lever Food came out Learned to hit lever to get food Operant Conditioning Cognitive behavior

Ability of the animals nervous system to perceive, store , process Use information gathered by sensory receptors Cognitive behavior

Chimpanzee Banana Bugs Forging Behavior Obtaining food at the least

expense Energy efficient Food vs safety Food vs mating Food vs protection Territoriality

Defends an area Usually excludes members of own species. Exclusive rights Food, mating

Gannet Cheetah Reproductive strategies Set of behaviors evolved to give

maximum reproduction Food source Nesting sites Members of opposite sex Sea elephant Altruism

Benefits others at the cost of individual

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