AutoCAD Architecture 2008: Part I: Getting Started

AutoCAD Architecture 2008: Part I: Getting Started

CHAPTER 7 MEASUREING SYSTEMS AND TOOLS OBJECTIVES After studying Chapter 7, the reader should be able to: Describe how to read a ruler. Explain how to use a micrometer and vernier dial caliper. Describe how to use a telescopic gauge and a micrometer to measure cylinder and lifter bores. Discuss how to measure valve guides using a small-hole gauge.

Calculate engine displacement and compression ratios. Automotive Engines: Theory and Servicing, 7/e By James D. Halderman 2 Copyright 2011, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 All rights reserved. KEY TERMS

Feeler gauge Sleeve Small-hole gauge Spindle Split-ball gauge Straightedge Thickness gauge Thimble Automotive Engines: Theory and Servicing, 7/e By James D. Halderman 3 Copyright 2011, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 All rights reserved. ENGLISH CUSTOMARY MEASURING SYSTEM

The English customary measuring system was established about A.D. 1100 in England during the reign of Henry I. The foot was determined to be 12 inches and was taken from the length of a typical foot. The yard (36 inches) was determined to be the length from King Henrys nose to the end of his outstretched hand. The mile came from Roman days and was originally defined as the distance traveled by a soldier in 1,000 paces or steps. Other English units, such as the pound (weight) and volume (gallon), evolved over the years from Roman and English measurements.

Automotive Engines: Theory and Servicing, 7/e By James D. Halderman 4 Copyright 2011, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 All rights reserved. ENGLISH CUSTOMARY MEASURING SYSTEM The Fahrenheit temperature scale was created by Gabriel Fahrenheit (16861736) and he used 100F as the temperature of the human body, which he missed by 1.4 degrees (98.6F is considered now to be normal temperature). On the Fahrenheit scale, water freezes at 32F and water boils at 212F.

Automotive Engines: Theory and Servicing, 7/e By James D. Halderman 5 Copyright 2011, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 All rights reserved. METRIC SYSTEM OF MEASURE LINEAR METRIC MEASUREMENTS VOLUME MEASUREMENT WEIGHT MEASUREMENT PRESSURE MEASUREMENTS DERIVED UNITS

Automotive Engines: Theory and Servicing, 7/e By James D. Halderman 6 Copyright 2011, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 All rights reserved. What Weighs a Gram? To better understand the metric system measurements, it is often helpful to visualize a certain object and relate it to a metric unit of measure. For example, the following objects weigh about 1 gram.

A dollar bill A small paper clip Automotive Engines: Theory and Servicing, 7/e By James D. Halderman 7 Copyright 2011, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 All rights reserved. LINEAR MEASUREMENTS (TAPE MEASURE/RULE) A tape measure or machinist rule divides inches into smaller units.

Each smaller unit is drawn with a line shorter than the longer unit. The units of measure starting with the largest include: 1 inch 1/2 inch 1/4 inch 1/8 inch 1/16 inch Automotive Engines: Theory and Servicing, 7/e By James D. Halderman 8

Copyright 2011, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 All rights reserved. LINEAR MEASUREMENTS (TAPE MEASURE/RULE) FIGURE 71 A rule showing that the larger the division, the longer the line. Automotive Engines: Theory and Servicing, 7/e By James D. Halderman 9 Copyright 2011, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 All rights reserved. LINEAR MEASUREMENTS (TAPE MEASURE/RULE) FIGURE 72 A plastic rule that has both inches and centimeters. Each line

between the numbers on the centimeters represents 1 millimeter because there are 10 millimeters in 1 centimeter. Automotive Engines: Theory and Servicing, 7/e By James D. Halderman 10 Copyright 2011, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 All rights reserved. MICROMETER A micrometer is the most used measuring instrument in engine service and repair. FIGURE 73 A typical micrometer showing the names of the parts. The sleeve may also be

called the barrel or stock. Automotive Engines: Theory and Servicing, 7/e By James D. Halderman 11 Copyright 2011, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 All rights reserved. MICROMETER FIGURE 74 All micrometers should be checked and calibrated as needed using a gauge rod. Automotive Engines: Theory and Servicing, 7/e By James D. Halderman 12 Copyright 2011, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 Pearson Education, Inc.,

Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 All rights reserved. MICROMETER FIGURE 75 The three micrometer readings are (a) 0.0212 in.; (b) 0.0775 in.; (c) 0.5280 in. These measurements used the vernier scale on the sleeve to arrive at the ten-thousandth measurement. The number that is aligned represents the digit in the ten-thousandth place. Automotive Engines: Theory and Servicing, 7/e By James D. Halderman 13 Copyright 2011, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 All rights reserved. MICROMETER FIGURE 76 Metric micrometer readings that use the vernier scale on the sleeve to read to the nearest 0.001 millimeter. The arrows point to the final reading for each of the three examples.

Automotive Engines: Theory and Servicing, 7/e By James D. Halderman 14 Copyright 2011, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 All rights reserved. MICROMETER CRANKSHAFT MEASUREMENT OUT-OF-ROUND TAPER

CAMSHAFT MEASUREMENT FIGURE 77 Using a micrometer to measure the connecting rod journal for out-of-round and taper. Automotive Engines: Theory and Servicing, 7/e By James D. Halderman 15 Copyright 2011, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 All rights reserved. MICROMETER FIGURE 78 Crankshaft journal measurements. Each journal should be measured in at least six locations, but also in position A and position B and at 120-degree intervals around the journal. Automotive Engines: Theory and Servicing, 7/e

By James D. Halderman 16 Copyright 2011, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 All rights reserved. MICROMETER CAMSHAFT MEASUREMENT The journal of the camshaft(s) can also be measured using a micrometer and compared with factory specifications for taper and out-of-round. FIGURE 79 Camshaft journals should be measured in three locations, 120 degrees apart, to

check for out-of-round. Automotive Engines: Theory and Servicing, 7/e By James D. Halderman 17 Copyright 2011, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 All rights reserved. MICROMETER CAMSHAFT MEASUREMENT FIGURE 710 Checking a camshaft for wear by measuring the lobe height with a micrometer. Automotive Engines: Theory and Servicing, 7/e By James D. Halderman 18

Copyright 2011, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 All rights reserved. TELESCOPIC GAUGE A telescopic gauge is used with a micrometer to measure the inside diameter of a hole or bore. FIGURE 711 When the head is first removed, the cylinder taper and out-of-round should be checked below the ridge (a) and above the piston when it is at the bottom of the stroke (b). Automotive Engines: Theory and Servicing, 7/e By James D. Halderman 19

Copyright 2011, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 All rights reserved. TELESCOPIC GAUGE FIGURE 712 (a) A telescopic gauge being used to measure the inside diameter (ID) of a camshaft bearing. (b) An outside micrometer used to measure the telescopic gauge. Automotive Engines: Theory and Servicing, 7/e By James D. Halderman 20 Copyright 2011, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 All rights reserved. SMALL-HOLE GAUGE A small-hole gauge (also called a split-ball gauge)

is used with a micrometer to measure the inside diameter of small holes such as a valve guide in a cylinder head. FIGURE 713 Cutaway of a valve guide with a hole gauge adjusted to the hole diameter. Automotive Engines: Theory and Servicing, 7/e By James D. Halderman 21 Copyright 2011, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 All rights reserved. SMALL-HOLE GAUGE FIGURE 714 The outside of a hole

gauge being measured with a micrometer. Automotive Engines: Theory and Servicing, 7/e By James D. Halderman 22 Copyright 2011, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 All rights reserved. VERNIER DIAL CALIPER A vernier dial caliper is normally used to measure length, inside and outside diameters, and depth. FIGURE 715 (a) A typical vernier dial caliper. This is a very useful measuring tool

for automotive engine work because it is capable of measuring inside, outside, and depth measurements. (b) To read a vernier dial caliper, simply add the reading on the blade to the reading on the dial. Automotive Engines: Theory and Servicing, 7/e By James D. Halderman 23 Copyright 2011, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 All rights reserved. What Is the Difference Between the Word Gage and Gauge? The word gauge means measurement or dimension to a standard of reference. The word gauge can also be spelled gage.

Therefore, in most cases, the words mean the same. Automotive Engines: Theory and Servicing, 7/e By James D. Halderman 24 Copyright 2011, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 All rights reserved. FEELER GAUGE A feeler gauge (also known as a thickness gauge) is an accurately manufactured strip of metal that is used to determine the gap or clearance between two components. A feeler gauge can be used to check the following:

Piston ring gap Piston ring side clearance Connecting rod side clearance Piston-to-wall clearance Automotive Engines: Theory and Servicing, 7/e By James D. Halderman 25 Copyright 2011, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 All rights reserved. FEELER GAUGE FIGURE 716 A group of feeler gauges (also known as thickness gauges),

used to measure between two parts. The long gauges on the bottom are used to measure the piston-to-cylinder wall clearance. Automotive Engines: Theory and Servicing, 7/e By James D. Halderman 26 Copyright 2011, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 All rights reserved. FEELER GAUGE FIGURE 717 A feeler gauge, also called a thickness gauge, is used to measure the small clearances such as the end gap of a piston ring. Automotive Engines: Theory and Servicing, 7/e By James D. Halderman 27

Copyright 2011, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 All rights reserved. STRAIGHTEDGE A straightedge is a precision ground metal measuring gauge that is used to check the flatness of engine components when used with a feeler gauge. A straightedge is used to check the flatness of the following: Cylinder heads Cylinder block deck Straightness of the main bearing bores (saddles) Automotive Engines: Theory and Servicing, 7/e

By James D. Halderman 28 Copyright 2011, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 All rights reserved. STRAIGHTEDGE FIGURE 718 A straightedge is used with a feeler gauge to determine if a cylinder head is warped or twisted. Automotive Engines: Theory and Servicing, 7/e By James D. Halderman 29 Copyright 2011, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 All rights reserved. DIAL INDICATOR

A dial indicator is a precision measuring instrument used to measure crankshaft end play, crankshaft runout, and valve guide wear. A dial indicator can be mounted three ways, including: Magnetic mount. Clamp mount. Threaded rod. Automotive Engines: Theory and Servicing, 7/e By James D. Halderman 30

Copyright 2011, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 All rights reserved. DIAL INDICATOR FIGURE 719 A dial indicator is used to measure valve lift during flow testing of a high-performance cylinder head. Automotive Engines: Theory and Servicing, 7/e By James D. Halderman 31 Copyright 2011, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 All rights reserved. DIAL BORE GAUGE A dial bore gauge is an

expensive, but important, gauge used to measure cylinder taper and out-ofround as well as main bearing (block housing) bore for taper and out-ofround. FIGURE 720 A dial bore gauge is used to measure cylinders and other engine parts for out-of-round and taper conditions. Automotive Engines: Theory and Servicing, 7/e By James D. Halderman 32 Copyright 2011, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 All rights reserved. DEPTH MICROMETER

A depth micrometer is similar to a conventional micrometer except that it is designed to measure the depth from a flat surface. FIGURE 721 A depth micrometer being used to measure the height of the rotor of an oil pump from the surface of the housing. Automotive Engines: Theory and Servicing, 7/e By James D. Halderman 33 Copyright 2011, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 All rights reserved. SUMMARY 1.

2. 3. 4. 5. A tape measure or machinist rule can be used to measure linear distances. A micrometer can measure 0.001 in. by using a thimble that has 40 threads per in. Each rotation of the thimble moves the thimble 0.025 in. The circumference of the thimble is graduated into 25 marks, each representing 0.001 in. A micrometer is used to check the diameter of a crankshaft journal as well as the taper and out-of-round. A camshaft bearing and lobe can be measured using a micrometer. A telescopic gauge is used with a micrometer to measure

the inside of a hole or bore, such as the big end of a connecting rod or a cylinder bore. Automotive Engines: Theory and Servicing, 7/e By James D. Halderman 34 Copyright 2011, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 All rights reserved. SUMMARY 6. 7. 8. 9. A small-hole gauge (also called a split-ball gauge) is used

with a micrometer to measure small holes such as the inside diameter of a valve guide in a cylinder head. A vernier dial caliper is used to measure the outside diameter of components such as pistons or crankshaft bearing journals as well as inside diameters and depth measurements. A feeler gauge (also called a thickness gauge) is used to measure the gap or clearance between two components such as piston ring gap, piston-ring side clearance, and connecting rod side clearance. A feeler gauge is also used with a precision straightedge to measure the flatness of blocks and cylinder heads. A dial indicator and dial bore gauge are used to measure differences in a component such as crankshaft end play (dial indicator) or cylinder taper (dial bore gauge). Automotive Engines: Theory and Servicing, 7/e By James D. Halderman 35

Copyright 2011, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 All rights reserved. REVIEW QUESTIONS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Explain how a micrometer is read. Describe how to check a crankshaft journal for out-of-round and taper. List engine components that can be measured with the help of a telescopic gauge. List the gaps or clearances that can be measured using a feeler (thickness) gauge. Explain why a dial bore gauge has to be set to a

dimension before using. Automotive Engines: Theory and Servicing, 7/e By James D. Halderman 36 Copyright 2011, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 All rights reserved. CHAPTER QUIZ 1. The threaded movable part that rotates on a micrometer is called the ________. a. b. c. d. Sleeve Thimble Spindle

Anvil Automotive Engines: Theory and Servicing, 7/e By James D. Halderman 37 Copyright 2011, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 All rights reserved. CHAPTER QUIZ 2. To check a crankshaft journal for taper, the journal should be measured in at least how many locations? a. b. c. d. One Two

Four Six Automotive Engines: Theory and Servicing, 7/e By James D. Halderman 38 Copyright 2011, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 All rights reserved. CHAPTER QUIZ 3. To check a crankshaft journal for out-of-round, the journal should be measured in at least how many locations? a. b. c. d. Two

Four Six Eight Automotive Engines: Theory and Servicing, 7/e By James D. Halderman 39 Copyright 2011, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 All rights reserved. CHAPTER QUIZ 4. A telescopic gauge can be used to measure a cylinder bore if what other measuring device is used to measure the telescopic gauge? a. b. c. d.

Micrometer Feeler gauge Straightedge Dial indicator Automotive Engines: Theory and Servicing, 7/e By James D. Halderman 40 Copyright 2011, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 All rights reserved. CHAPTER QUIZ 5. To directly measure the diameter of a valve guide in a cylinder head, use a micrometer and a ________. a. b. c. d.

Telescopic gauge Feeler gauge Small-hole gauge Dial indicator Automotive Engines: Theory and Servicing, 7/e By James D. Halderman 41 Copyright 2011, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 All rights reserved. CHAPTER QUIZ 6. Which of the following cannot be measured using a feeler gauge? a. b. c. d.

Valve guide clearance Piston-ring gap Piston-ring side clearance Connecting rod side clearance Automotive Engines: Theory and Servicing, 7/e By James D. Halderman 42 Copyright 2011, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 All rights reserved. CHAPTER QUIZ 7. Which of the following cannot be measured using a straightedge and a feeler gauge? a. b. c. d.

Cylinder head flatness Block deck flatness Straightness of the main bearing bores Straightness of the cylinder bore Automotive Engines: Theory and Servicing, 7/e By James D. Halderman 43 Copyright 2011, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 All rights reserved. CHAPTER QUIZ 8. Which measuring gauge needs to be set up (adjusted) to a fixed dimension before use? a. b. c. d.

Dial indicator Dial bore gauge Vernier dial gauge Micrometer Automotive Engines: Theory and Servicing, 7/e By James D. Halderman 44 Copyright 2011, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 All rights reserved. CHAPTER QUIZ 9. The freezing point of water is ________. a. b. c. d.

0C 32F 0F Both a and b Automotive Engines: Theory and Servicing, 7/e By James D. Halderman 45 Copyright 2011, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 All rights reserved. CHAPTER QUIZ 10. Which metric unit of measure is used for volume measurement? a. b. c. d.

Meter cc Centimeter Millimeter Automotive Engines: Theory and Servicing, 7/e By James D. Halderman 46 Copyright 2011, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 All rights reserved.

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