Arthropods - PC\|MAC

Arthropods - PC\|MAC

Arthropods Week 6 Phylum: Arthropoda Common name = arthropods Ex. Insects, spiders, crabs, shrimp, centipedes, lobsters, ticks

Monday Arthropods Arthropods have: Segmented body Head Cephalothorax

Thorax Abdomen Tough exoskeleton made of chitin Jointed appendages Evolution of Arthropods Led to Fewer appendages

Few segments Highly specialized appendages

Antennae Pincers Walking legs Flippers Claws Feeding Herbivores, carnivores, omnivores

Bloodsuckers, filter feeders, detritivores, parasites Mouthparts range from pinchers to fangs to sickle-shaped jaws depending on diet Respiration Terrestrial Breathe thru a network of branching tracheal

tubes Air enters through spiracles = little openings along body Spiders uses book lungs Aquatic Featherlike gills Horseshoe crabs have book gills

Circulation Open circulatory system Well-developed heart Excretion Terrestrial Malpighian tubules = saclike organs that extract

wastes from the blood and add them to feces (digestive wastes) Aquatic Diffusion Response Well-developed nervous system

All have a BRAIN Movement Muscles are attached to exoskeleton Pull of muscles against exoskeleton allows arthropods to move All have jointed appendages

Reproduction Terrestrial Internal fertilization Aquatic Internal or external fertilization Growth and Development

Exoskeletons DO NOT GROW, arthropods must MOLT Molting = arthropod sheds entire exoskeleton and makes a new larger one Molting arthropods are vulnerable and hide until they are done Crustaceans

Primarily aquatic Crabs, shrimps, lobsters, crawfish, barnacles

2 pairs of branched antennae 2 or 3 body segments Chewing mouthparts = mandibles Tuesday Associated Vocabulary Cephalothorax = fused body segment

consisting of head and thorax Abdomen Carapace = part of exoskeleton that covers the cephalothorax Mandible = biting, grinding mouthpart Chelipeds = claws Swimmerets = flipper-like appendages for swimming

Chelicerates 2 body segments Most have 4 pairs of walking legs Horseshoe crabs, spiders, ticks, scorpions From Prentice Hall Biology, 2006

Eyelash mites Demodex folliculorum Brown Recluse Black Widow

Associated Vocabulary Chelicerae = mouthparts with fangs for stabbing and paralyzing prey Pedipalps =mouthparts for grabbing prey Book lungs Book gills Spinnerets = organs in spiders that contain silk glands for spinning webs

Uniramians Contains more species than all other animal groups combined!

Jaws 1 pair of antennae Unbranched appendages Insects, centipedes, millipedes Centipedes and Millipedes Millipedes

Highly segmented body 2 pairs of legs per segment Live under rocks and decaying logs Roll up or secrete toxins for defense Centipedes 1 pair of legs per segment Carnivorous and venomous

Live under rocks or in soil in humid areas Insects

3 body segments = head, thorax, abdomen 3 pairs of legs 1 pair of antennae 1 pair of compound eyes 2 pairs of wings Wednesday

Insects are the largest class of animals! Response to Stimuli Compound eyes with many lenses detect tiny movements and color changes

Chemical receptors on mouthparts, legs and antennae (taste/smell) Well-developed ears (grasshoppers have ears on their legs!) Adaptations for Feeding 3 pairs of appendages used as mouthparts Mandibles to saw/grind (ex. ant)

Tube-like mouthpart to suck nectar (ex. moth) Sponge-like mouthpart to lap up food (e. fly) Digestive enzymes in saliva Bee saliva changes nectar from flowers into honey Movement and Flight 3 pairs of legs

Walking, jumping, capturing/holding prey Many species have spines or hooks on legs 2 pairs of wings made of chitin Evolution of flight allowed insects to disperse long distances and colonize many habitats Metamorphosis

Process of changing shape and form Complete metamorphosis Egg-larva-pupa-adult Larva looks nothing like adult Incomplete metamorphosis Egg-nymph-adult Nymphs look like adults

Advantage = larva and adults dont compete for resources Insects and Humans Harmful

Beneficial Damage Honey wood Damage Wax clothes Stings Pollination

Crop Silk damage Disease Food Insect Communication Audio Crickets

Visual Fireflies Chemical Bees Pheromones

Insect Societies Society = a group of closely related animals of the same species that work together for the benefit of the whole group Bees Ants Termites

Castes = groups of individuals that perform specific functions

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