AP EURO Unit #1 - Renaissance and Reformation Lesson #2 - The ...
AP EURO Unit #6 Early 20th Century (The World Wars) Lesson #609 Rise of Hitler Collapse of the German Economy What effect the USA have on the collapse of ther German economy? American Great Depression hit Germany HARD Loans dried up Americans stopped buying German products
Unemployment doubled (to 6million) By 1930 - Chancellor Heinrich Bruning desperate Convinced Pres. Hindenburg to enact Article 48 Why? Allowed him to rule by decree Dissolved Parliament
Passed austere measures Did it help? Unfortunately only intensified German depression Collapse of the German Economy
How did Hitler, the politician fit into this? Hitler reemerged with answers He promised economic and political salvation What did that mean? Started working the electorate By 1930 Nazis had won 6million votes By 1932 Nazis won another 4million (38%) Largest political party in the Reichstag SA growing in size and popularity 100,000 members by 1930
1million by 1933 Openly attacked Socialists & communists at their mass rallies were anti-government, pro-Radical Chancellor and President
Hitler was becoming a name in politics Nation seemed to support his promises And tolerated his Nazis thug tactics Why? explain He ran for President against the popular Hindenburg won 36% - why will this matter? Presidents chief political job is hiring Chancellor
(like a Bolshevik Supreme Communist Party Sec.) Hitler demanded Hindenburg appoint him Chancellor Explain why, and why he can Politicians thought they could control Hitler; pressured Hindenburg to appoint him 1933 Hindenburg reluctantly agreed Hitler Appointed Chancellor
So, thats it. Hitler came to power legally But, the story does not end there How did he get to: 1. 2. 3. 4. Come to eliminate all other parties? Come to eliminate all elections?
Become even more popular? Able to shift from popular politician, to feared and supported dictator? Why were the Germans willing to freely and legally surrender all power to one man? Enabling Act Upon Hitlers appointment as Chancellor, he called for immediate elections totally legal During election, Reichstag building
caught fire Hitler requested Article 48 government was under attack! Investigation showed it was the Communists and Socialists to started fire most were arrested Hitler suggested a new law, extending Article 48 for four years called the ENABLING ACT Night of the Long Knives Why would Hitler want to eliminate the SA?
Only opposition now was the well trained antigovernment thugs: the SA Next step: Hitlers version of the purge called NIGHT OF THE LONG KNIVES June, 1933 night of elimination of last opposition group Hitlers bodyguard (SS), sworn to protect Hitler to the death carried out murders In a single night, 1000 leaders were murdered SS and Gestapo had overlapping duties Political leader to The Fuhrer Pres. Hindenburg died in 1934
Hitler suggested combining the offices for convenience until new election. why? For what reason? Consolidation of power was complete Next step: elimination of all opposition parties Then, elimination of all elected government Transformation of German government was complete Next step? Transformation of economy and society
Nazification of German Society Public book burnings ideologies opposed to Nazism Hitler Youth (HJ) Goal: indoctrinate institutional racism Massive rallies Goal: create an aura of awe and unity Huge Public works projects
Created full employment and stable economy Public recognition of Nazi style heroes Ex: Bronze Cross of the Mothers of the Fatherland Presented to women with four kids Hitler encouraged strong family values Hitlers Henchmen Dr. Joseph Goebbels Propaganda minister Heinrich Himmler
Leader of SS and Gestapo Herman Goring Head of newly formed Luftwaffe SA (storm troopers) SA wear brown uniforms. They were formed to promote Nazism with thug tactics, and to fight the Socialists and the established government. The SA was often called a beater troop. In the 20's other-thinking people (like socialists)
were brutally beat by the SA. The SA leader was Ernst Roehm, had own plans to build up the SA to replace the militia, which could have been dangerous for Hitler. On June 30, 1934, the Night of the Long Knives, Roehm and 1000 other leading SA men were killed. The remaining SA dispersed, or became absorbed into the massively growing SS. The SS
The SS (Schutzstaffel) was formed in 1925 from the"Stosstrupp Hitler," founded in 1923 as the bodyguard for Hitler. This group wore black uniforms, and after 1933, they eclipsed the SA and assumed the position of body guard. They were highly disciplined and did everything what Adolf Hitler wanted. The SS was even more brutal than the SA, but more systematic, and not just to Socialists or established government. The boss of the SS was Heinrich Himmler, later responsible for the concentration camps. At the end of the Second World War the SS had
shrunk in size to about 900,000 members. The Gestapo The state secret police. Formed by Hermann Goring in 1933, leadership was transferred to Heinrich Himmler in 1934, and Goring formed and led the Luftwaffe, the elite German Air force. From its creation in 1933 until its death in
May 1945, anyone living in Nazi controlled territory lived in fear of a visit from the Gestapo. Hitler prepares for war Factories encouraged to produce war machines first repudiation of Versailles 1933 Germany dropped out of League of Nations stepped up repudiation Germans then dropped out of disarmament talks continued to build army
Why did nobody do anything? Construction of Autobahn system By 1938 German unemployment below 2% As American unemployment shot back up to all time high Germans suffered a worker shortage Hitler continues to prepare for war Germany created Luftwaffe Germany started building new style of tanks and planes and bombers Germany shifted troops around
Then, Germany militarized the Rhineland (1936) France built up the Maginot Line Why did no Germans try to stop him? Why did USA and Britain ignore developments? What was happening in Russia? Jewish Persecution Dachau Concentration camp built in 1934 became model still there
Hitler promised to eliminate all undesirables to protect society Does America have a history of this? Legalized elimination of rights for Jews Nuremburg Laws (1934) Jews denied full citizenship rights Kristallnacht (night of the Broken Glass) (1938) Holocaust the final solution to the Jewish question why? Dachau became model for camps all over Germany, then Europe
Master Race Hitler created measurements for desirables and undesirables why do you think he was so precise? And recorded all actions with enormous attention to detail why do you think he did that? Combine the two questions analyze history Women were encouraged to breed Loans and tax breaks to those who married young; child allowances
Jews, Slavs and Gypsies considered inferior by Nazis why them? Look at the total % of Germans Unhealthy, mentally challenged, physically impaired all considered less than desirable War Clouds - 1936 Hitler had been in power 3 years Military now more powerful than any in the world Ready to fully denounce Versailles Treaty 1. Sent troops into Rhineland 2. Sent Luftwaffe to Spain to aid Fascists
3. Formed military alliance with Italy 4. Annexed Austria (ANSCHLUSS) (bullied Aust. Leaders) Spanish Civil War practice for Luftwaffe and the new German war machine - 1936 Hitler and Mussolini formed an alliance (1936) Japan joined alliance in an anti-ComIntern Pact How was Spain good for Germany? British policy of Appeasement It became obvious that Hitler had fully rebuilt German economy, society, military
By 1938, Germany had reclaimed leadership in Europe No one was willing or able to stand in Hitlers way. Neville Chamberlain is best symbol After German annexation of Czechoslovakia, British took a stand Case: Czechoslovakia A newly created nation from Austrian Empire A democratic, capitalistic nation Western Frontier ring was called Sudetenland Buffer around nation
Only protection Heavily armed Also, filled with Germans, loyal to Hitler (3.5mil) Hitler claimed to want to protect Sudeten Germans Hitler first claimed right to annex Sudetenland Their protective frontier was erased Then, marched into Prague (Mar, 1939, 6mo later), unopposed and just took over Czechoslovakia Why were they not stopped? Appeasement
Give an argument for giving in to Hitler. Give an argument against it. British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain was proud to appease Hitler peace with honor peace for our time Flew to Berlin 3x got Hitlers signature In return, Britain had to allow for annexation of Czechoslovakia Czechs were not even a part of discussion Why were people so damn happy about this agreement?!
1.5m Alliances 1936 The Anschluss 1939 Russian-German non-aggression pact 1939 Rome-Berlin Axis 10 mistakes by Hitler (15m) https:// www.youtube.com/watch?v=GK419Nlp8eU Repudiation of Versailles
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