Animal Science- Small Animal - AET

Animal Science- Small Animal - AET

Animal Science II- Small Animal Unit B- The Small Animal Care Industry Essential Standard 3.00 Discuss the importance of the small animal industry. Objective 3.01 Discuss careers and skills needed for employment in the small animal care

industry. Assignment Title your notes today Small Animal Industry Brainstorm how the Small Animal Industry can benefit society in general. Put a few of your own ideas in you notebook. Benefits of Small Animals

Economic $38.5 billion to national economy (2006) Companions to 60% of American Families Children learn responsibility Improves quality of life for elderly

Benefits of Small Animals Product testing Develop drugs and vaccines Hepatitis, diphtheria, tetanus, and polio vaccines Benefits of Small Animals

Pet therapy Watch dogs, police dogs, seeing eye dogs Rabbit meat

Relieve depression Reduces heart disease Low in cholesterol, sodium and fat Fur and wool Benefits of Small Animals Exhibition

Zoos, circus acts, etc. Rabbits provide multiple benefits Pets Food Clothing

Research Economics Retail pet stores Biomedical research

15,000-18,000 in the U.S. Supported by $15 billion in taxes and charity 65-100 million small animals Education 6 million used for dissection Economics

4 million small animals used in the LD50 test Americans spending on pets $20.3 billion Economics Veterinary expenses

$9.2 billion annually Supplies and OTC medicines $9.3 billion Grooming and Boarding $2.7 billion Dogs require twice as much for veterinary care as cats Pet food manufacturers produce $15.4

billion in sales (2006) General Pet Ownership 10 million more cats than dogs (81.7 to 72 million) Each More owner averages two cats households have dogs (37.2%) than

cats (32.4%) Fish, birds, and rabbits rank third, fourth, and fifth respectively. Job Types Care and management industry Pets Lab animals Zoo animals

Health Training Biological Sciences Food and equipment supply Job Types Pharmaceutical and biotechnology research Hospitals

Universities Diagnostic Labs Private firms Job Types Exhibitors Operates animals acts Carnivals Circus

Fairs (Cleveland County Fair) Zoo Marine mammal displays Care and Management Jobs 1. Pet care worker

Boarding kennels Animal hospitals Shelters Pet stores Training schools Pet grooming parlors Care and Management Jobs

2. Kennel attendants 3. Animal groomers 4. Feeds and cares for animals

Cleans Bathes, brushes & trims hair and nails Dog trainers Teaches the dog to obey signals or commands Care and Management Jobs 5. Small Animal Breeders

6. 7. Raise & market fur-bearing animals, lab animals, and supply animals for pet shops Usually specialized for one breed Pet shop owners and managers Dealers Sell lab animals

Research Education Care and Management Jobs Veterinarians (DVM) 8.

Control animal injuries and disease Disease prevention Inspection o Meat and animals products Surgery Establish diets Prescribe medications

Care and Management Jobs 9. Vet. Technicians 1. Assist veterinarians and other staff Skills needed:

Previous experience as a keeper Part-time volunteer work Shelters Pet shops clinics Essential Standard 3.00 Discuss the importance of the small animal industry.

Objective 3.02 Discuss medical terminology used by those working in the veterinarian phase of the small animal care industry Medical Terminology Components of medical terminology Prefix

Beginning of the word indicating: Number Location Time Status Root words Word

word part that gives the fundamental meaning of a Medical Terminology Suffixes Word part at the end of a word indicating: Procedure Condition Disease

Disorder Medical Prefixes 1. a-, an- without, lack of 2. anti- against, opposing 3.

Bilateral- two sides dys- painful, difficult, abnormal 5. Antiseptic- against infection bi- two, double, twice 4.

Anemia- without blood Dysentery- abnormal infection of the colon pre- before Preoperative- before surgery Medical Root Words 1. carp

wrist 2. cardi heart 3.

carpel- pertaining to the wrist cardiology- study of the heart dors back dorsal- relating to the back Medical Root Words

4. dent, odont teeth 5. Gastr stomach

6. gastronomy- surgical opening of the stomach Gingiv gums 7.

dentist- person who works with teeth gingivitis- inflammation of the gums phleb, ven vein phlebotomist- person who obtains blood from veins Medical Suffixes algia

Pain arthralgia- painful joints centesis Procedure to remove fluid Cytocentesis- removing fluid from the bladder

itis inflammation bronchitis rrhea Flow or discharge diarrhea Positional Terminology

Ventral-underside of the body Cranial-head Anterior-front of the body Posterior-rear of the body Dorsal-back Caudal-tail Positional Terminology Dorsal

(frontal) plane-plane that divides the body into the dorsal (back) and ventral (belly) parts Positional Terminology Transverse (horizontal or cross-sectional) plane-plane that divides the body into cranial and caudal parts. Positional Terminology Visit

the following website to view a Virtual Cat Dissection External Anatomy Link http://bio.bd.psu.edu/cat/index.htm General Terminology 1. 2. 3. 4.

Antisepsis Biopsy Catheterization Clutch General Terminology 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Colostrum

Contact transmission Endogenous Exogenous Incubation General Terminology 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16.

Infectious disease Pocket pets Preventative health care programs Quarantine Spaying Neutering Zoonoses Essential Standard 4.00 Explore social issues related to working with small animals. Objective 4.01 Summarize

welfare animal rights and animal Animal Rights Not the same as animal welfare. Media may wrongly use the two terms interchangeably.

Modern Animal Rights Movement Over 400 animal rights groups exist today Came into prominence in the 1960s and 1970s Initially mainly made up of urban people, many of whom were vegetarians Animal Rights Beliefs Animals have same rights as humans

(humans are also animals). Use of animals for human purpose is wrong and suggests that humans are superior to animals. Animals should not be used for entertainment. Animal Rights Beliefs Animals should not be used for:

Food Clothing Medical research Product testing Ecoterrorism is often used to prevent people from using animals. PETA

People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals Largest animal rights group in the world with over 800,000 members Since 1980, it has been dedicated to establishing and protecting rights of animals. Animal Welfare

Animal domestication dates back to early Chinese and Egyptian cultures. Early U.S. used animals for food, clothing, shelter, transportation, and horsepower. Animal Welfare (Religious) Creation view that God gave man dominion over animals including use and care Genesis

Various 1:26 religions use animal sacrifice and detail how to humanely slaughter the animal. Animal Welfare (Legal) Animal welfare influenced early laws. Laws protecting animals were present

before the animal rights movement. Animal Welfare Beliefs Humane treatment of animals Proper housing and nutrition Proper care for disease prevention and treatment for injuries Euthanasia or slaughter should be done in a humane way. The Vote? Do

animals have rights? Should animals be used for food? Should animals be used for experimentation? Should hunting and trapping of animals be allowed? Objective 4.02 Demonstrate safe work habits and

techniques used when working with small animals. Zoonoses A disease that can be transmitted from animals to humans Example: Rabies Rabies A

viral disease Affects the nervous system Contracted by: Bites Scratches Saliva Rabies Immunization is recommended when in doubt 93% of reported cases were in wild

animals Children ages 5-9 make up less than 9% of the population receive the most animal bites (30%) Most domestic animals are not infected if vaccinated regularly Toxoplasmosis Disease from Toxoplasma gondii parasite Usually carried by cats Infected

Spread by ingesting contaminated mice by: Cat feces Contaminated cat litter Affects system

those with suppressed immune Toxoplasmosis Concern for pregnant women Miscarriage Premature babies Blindness in babies Prevention: Disposable

gloves when cleaning litter box Thoroughly washing hands Ringworm Fungal disease Skin lesion: Round Scaly and encrusted Loss of hair at site

Spread by direct contact Indirectly by equipment Treatment: Iodine soap or antifungal drugs Psittacosis (Parrot Fever) Contracted by caged birds such as parrots, budgerigars, and related birds

Transmitted through feces and fecal dust Bacteria Prevention: Wear dust mask Eliminating mites and lice Spraying disinfectants on bird feathers Cat-scratch fever Non-serious Cat

bites and scratches Symptoms: Localized Treated swelling and soreness with antibiotics Affected area may be slow to heal Cat-scratch fever Samonellosis

Caused by the Salmonella bacteria Children and elderly most at risk Symptoms appear 12-72hrs after infection: Abdominal pain Vomiting Diarrhea Pet

for 4-7 days turtles and reptiles Most likely to infect humans Streptococcal Bacteria Results in sore throat Can be transmitted by dogs

Treated with penicillin Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever Cause coagulation of the blood Fever Headaches Nausea & Vomiting Skin rash Death if not treated

Primarily 6 passed by the American dig tick other species can carry the disease Lyme Disease First case in 1969 in Wisconsin Named in 1977 Lyme

Connecticut Children developed arthritic condition Bacterial disease (Borrelia burgdurferi) Distinctive skin lesion 3-32 days Lyme Disease Flu like symptoms Painful

joints Fatigue may last for months Can damage internal organs without antibiotics used as treatment Vaccines can be administered Parasites Gain subsistence from a host organism Can be internal or external Children are most at risk because they

play with animals and in the areas where animals have been. Ticks Seven species carry Rocky Mountain Spotted fever Five species carry Lyme disease Roundworms Ascarids (Toxocara species) &

Hookworms Affect dogs and cats May be passed to humans Fever Headache De-worming cats and dogs most effective preventative method Tapeworms Tapeworm Occasionally

carried by dogs and cats Alveolar Hydatid Disease (AHD) Rare Potentially fatal (50-70%) Parasitic tumors of the liver May Avoid go unnoticed for years

hand to mouth contact Tapeworm Life Cycle of AHD Working with Animals Safely Frequently wash hands and use protective clothing to avoid contamination. Separate sick animals and treat in separate areas. Do not eat, drink, or store food and drink in

treatment areas. Never wash lab coats and protective clothing with regular clothes. Working with Animals Safely Protective Rubber Clothing unlined gloves, rubber boots, and face shield or goggles with anti-fog lenses should be worn when handling chemicals or applying pesticides.

Leather gloves help to protect from bites and scratches. Working with Animals Safely Protective Coveralls Clothing and lab coats offer some protection from bites and scratches. Respirators should be worn when there is a danger of inhaling toxic dust and other substances.

Chemical Safety Use chemicals according to label instructions Store chemicals in the original container Avoiding over-mixing and storing chemicals, but if they must be stored make sure they are in a locked location and clearly labeled. Chemical Safety Dispose

of all chemicals and their containers according to label instructions. Frequently wash hands and exposed area after using chemicals. Proper Handling Techniques Prevent injury to the animal and the handler. Keep a first-aid kit available for workers who do suffer bites or scratches.

Briefly restrain animals when needed for examination or treatment. Proper Handling Techniques To work around the head of a cat, wrap the animal in a blanket and place it into a zippered canvas bag so the handler can grasp the back of the head and hold the head between the thumb and fingers. Proper Handling Techniques Dogs

are restrained by placing one arm under the dogs neck with the forearm holding the head while the other arm is placed around the animals body to pull it close to the handler. Proper Handling Techniques Dog muzzles can be created by looping a strip of gauze over the nose and mouth, crossing under the jaw and then tying into a bow behind the dogs ears.

Proper Handling Techniques Rabbits can be picked up by grabbing the scruff of the neck and placing a hand under the rump for support. To hold them, simply move the hand from the rump to the abdomen. Proper Handling Techniques Rabbits seldom bite, but can cause injury

by kicking with their back legs. They may be injured if placed on a smooth surface. Foot pads are covered with fur. Can result in dislocation of hips or spine. Proper Handling Techniques Rats and mice that are used to being held may be picked up by grasping the tail close to the body and then using the other

hand to grasp the loose skin in the neck and shoulder area.

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