Animal Science - Havelock Agricultural Education

Animal Science - Havelock Agricultural Education

Animal Digestion and Nutrition Objective 7.02: Understand the digestive process RUMINANTS Ruminant Animals Animals with complex digestive systems Capable of digesting material with a high fiber concentration

Uses microbial fermentation Cattle Sheep Goats Deer

Ruminants Ruminant Digestive System Parts and Functions Mouth Bites and chews Esophagus

Connection Four Compartment Stomach Rumen Reticulum Omasum

Abomasum 85% of the capacity Parts and Functions Rumen Largest of the four parts room-in-it Filled with bacteria Converts large amounts of roughage to amino acids

Fact!!!! The average cow rumen can hold over 160 liters (40 gallons) Ruman Ruman Microbe Ruman Microbe The large microbe is a type of protist The creature that looks like a tadpole

attached to the side of the protist is a fungal spore The smaller, rod-shaped organism lining the underside of the protist are bacteria. Parts and Functions Reticulum Compartment where liquid goes Honeycomb in structure

Omasum Grinds and squeezes Removes some liquid Abomasum True stomach Enzymes and acids

Parts and Functions Small Intestine Partially digested feed is mixed Bile Pancreatic juice Intestinal juice Most of the food nutrient

is absorbed Villi or Papillae Parts and Functions Cecum Serves little to no function in most animals Horses, Rabbits, and Guinea Pigs have an

enlarged cecum that helps breakdown roughages Large intestine Main function is to absorbed water Add mucus to undigested feed Feces NON-RUMINANT Non-Ruminant

Simple digestive system (Monogastric) Feed must be high quality concentrates Cannot digest large amounts of fiber Human Dogs Cats Rabbits (COPROPHAGY)

Pigs Horses???? Non-Ruminant Parts & Functions Mouth Esophagus Stomach Enzymes acts on feed Churns and mixes

Small intestine Cecum Large intestine Non-Ruminant Parts & Functions Accessory system Liver

Produces bile that acts on fat Pancreas Produces insulin Gall Bladder Produces bile that aids in digestion

Anus End of the digestive tract Monogastric Dorsal Posterior Anterior Ventral Simple Digestive System

POULTRY DIGESTIVE SYSTEMS Poultry Chickens Turkeys Ducks

Geese Poultry Digestive System Poultry have monogastric digestive systems as well. But their digestive system is different enough from the other monogastric animals to discuss separately. Poultry Digestive Systems

Mouth or beak Can not chew food Esophagus Connects mouth to crop Crop Stores feed

Poultry Digestive Systems Gizzard Crushes feed Contains grit and gravel Mixes feed with digestive juices

Liver Small and Large Intestine Vent Removes solid and liquid waste Inspecting Animal Digestive Systems Esophagus Tube like structure

Stomach Pouch with undigested feed Liver Large brown organ beneath the stomach or crop Inspecting Animal

Digestive Systems Small intestine Long tube Gray colored partially digested feed Large intestine Large relatively short compartment

Contains fecal material Animal Feeds Objective 7.01: Classify animal feeds Nutritional Information Nutrient Chemical element or compound that aids in the support of life.

Ration The amount and kind of feed given to an animal on a daily basis Nutritional Information Roughages High in Fiber Forage Crops Silage

Hay Pasture Grass Nutritional Information Concentrates High in Nutrient Value Grains Corn Barley

Wheat Nutritional Value Total Digestible Nutrients Concentrates are high in TDN Roughages are low in TDN Nutritional Information Smaller producers will used

commercially bagged feed ration. Larger producers will make their own feed rations. A ration should fit the amounts and kinds of nutrients needed based on the status of the animal. Functions of a Ration Maintenance Growth Production

Reproduction Fattening Work GROUPS OF NUTRIENTS Carbohydrates Composed of sugar, starches, cellulose and lignin Provide energy and heat Make up the largest quantity of livestock feed

Carbon Hydrogen Oxygen Fats and Oils 2.25 times the energy value of carbohydrates At body temperature fat are solids and oils are liquid

Example: cooking lard Extra carbohydrates are stored as fats Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen Carriers fat-soluble vitamins Proteins Major component of muscles and tissues

Made up of amino acids Continuously needed to replace dying body cells Young animals need large amounts for growth Organic Vitamins Needed in small quantities Helps regulate body functions Designated by letters

A,B,C,D,E,K Organic Sources: Naturally found in feed Feed additives made from animal byproducts Made by the body itself Minerals

Needed in small amounts Calcium, phosphorus, sodium, etc. Regulates body functions Provide growth for: Bone Teeth Tissue Example:

calcium is needed in poultry for eggshell development Water Makes up 40% to 60% of the animals body Dissolves other nutrients and helps

carry them to parts of the body Sources of Nutrients Carbohydrates Cereal grains corn wheat oats rye barley

sorghum Sources of Nutrients Proteins Plant sources Soybean meal Cottonseed meal Alfalfa meal

Animal sources Meat meal Fishmeal Dried milk Synthetic nitrogen source called urea Sources of Nutrients Fats and Oils Grains and protein concentrates

Vitamins and Minerals Most feed ingredients Supplements Pre-mixes Mineral blocks Sources of Nutrients

Other sources and exceptions: Alfalfa (roughage) can be used to provide energy and fiber Molasses Improve taste (palatability) Reduce feed dust

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