Animal Digestion and Nutrition Objective 7.02: Understand the digestive process RUMINANTS Ruminant Animals Animals with complex digestive systems Capable of digesting material with a high fiber concentration
Ruminants Ruminant Digestive System Parts and Functions Mouth Bites and chews Esophagus
Connection Four Compartment Stomach Rumen Reticulum Omasum
Abomasum 85% of the capacity Parts and Functions Rumen Largest of the four parts room-in-it Filled with bacteria Converts large amounts of roughage to amino acids
Fact!!!! The average cow rumen can hold over 160 liters (40 gallons) Ruman Ruman Microbe Ruman Microbe The large microbe is a type of protist The creature that looks like a tadpole
attached to the side of the protist is a fungal spore The smaller, rod-shaped organism lining the underside of the protist are bacteria. Parts and Functions Reticulum Compartment where liquid goes Honeycomb in structure
Omasum Grinds and squeezes Removes some liquid Abomasum True stomach Enzymes and acids
Parts and Functions Small Intestine Partially digested feed is mixed Bile Pancreatic juice Intestinal juice Most of the food nutrient
is absorbed Villi or Papillae Parts and Functions Cecum Serves little to no function in most animals Horses, Rabbits, and Guinea Pigs have an
enlarged cecum that helps breakdown roughages Large intestine Main function is to absorbed water Add mucus to undigested feed Feces NON-RUMINANT Non-Ruminant
Simple digestive system (Monogastric) Feed must be high quality concentrates Cannot digest large amounts of fiber Human Dogs Cats Rabbits (COPROPHAGY)
Pigs Horses???? Non-Ruminant Parts & Functions Mouth Esophagus Stomach Enzymes acts on feed Churns and mixes
Small intestine Cecum Large intestine Non-Ruminant Parts & Functions Accessory system Liver
Produces bile that acts on fat Pancreas Produces insulin Gall Bladder Produces bile that aids in digestion
Anus End of the digestive tract Monogastric Dorsal Posterior Anterior Ventral Simple Digestive System
POULTRY DIGESTIVE SYSTEMS Poultry Chickens Turkeys Ducks
Geese Poultry Digestive System Poultry have monogastric digestive systems as well. But their digestive system is different enough from the other monogastric animals to discuss separately. Poultry Digestive Systems
Mouth or beak Can not chew food Esophagus Connects mouth to crop Crop Stores feed
Poultry Digestive Systems Gizzard Crushes feed Contains grit and gravel Mixes feed with digestive juices
Liver Small and Large Intestine Vent Removes solid and liquid waste Inspecting Animal Digestive Systems Esophagus Tube like structure
Stomach Pouch with undigested feed Liver Large brown organ beneath the stomach or crop Inspecting Animal
Digestive Systems Small intestine Long tube Gray colored partially digested feed Large intestine Large relatively short compartment
Contains fecal material Animal Feeds Objective 7.01: Classify animal feeds Nutritional Information Nutrient Chemical element or compound that aids in the support of life.
Ration The amount and kind of feed given to an animal on a daily basis Nutritional Information Roughages High in Fiber Forage Crops Silage
Hay Pasture Grass Nutritional Information Concentrates High in Nutrient Value Grains Corn Barley
Wheat Nutritional Value Total Digestible Nutrients Concentrates are high in TDN Roughages are low in TDN Nutritional Information Smaller producers will used
commercially bagged feed ration. Larger producers will make their own feed rations. A ration should fit the amounts and kinds of nutrients needed based on the status of the animal. Functions of a Ration Maintenance Growth Production
Reproduction Fattening Work GROUPS OF NUTRIENTS Carbohydrates Composed of sugar, starches, cellulose and lignin Provide energy and heat Make up the largest quantity of livestock feed
Carbon Hydrogen Oxygen Fats and Oils 2.25 times the energy value of carbohydrates At body temperature fat are solids and oils are liquid
Example: cooking lard Extra carbohydrates are stored as fats Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen Carriers fat-soluble vitamins Proteins Major component of muscles and tissues
Made up of amino acids Continuously needed to replace dying body cells Young animals need large amounts for growth Organic Vitamins Needed in small quantities Helps regulate body functions Designated by letters
A,B,C,D,E,K Organic Sources: Naturally found in feed Feed additives made from animal byproducts Made by the body itself Minerals
Needed in small amounts Calcium, phosphorus, sodium, etc. Regulates body functions Provide growth for: Bone Teeth Tissue Example:
calcium is needed in poultry for eggshell development Water Makes up 40% to 60% of the animals body Dissolves other nutrients and helps
carry them to parts of the body Sources of Nutrients Carbohydrates Cereal grains corn wheat oats rye barley
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