Ancient Greece

Ancient Greece

Ancient Greece Mr. Ermer World History Miami Beach Senior High Moving & Shaking Mediterranean basin = uniform ecological zone Easy transfer of lifestyles across space Second Generation Societies/Cultures

Assyrian defeat & Persian expansion= new cultural blending Improved maritime navigation = colonization of Western Med. Sea Hybrid communities combining new and old ideas Phoenicians, Greeks, Lydians, Etruscans New models of governments comprised of

Map of Greece The Greek Dark Age 1100-800 BCE: Greece suffers from loss of population and declining agriculture, Greece is isolated from Asia Poverty, limited resources Many Mycenaean Greeks leave Greece for Ionian Greece, coastal regions of Asia Minor (Anatolia) & Western Med. Iron weapons replace Bronze as war between remaining citystates increases over scarce resources

800: Phoenicians reestablish trade between Greece & Asia Greeks adopt the Phoenician alphabet Greece = plentiful clay for pottery, and stone for building material (marble) Two new groups pastoral nomadic Indo-European

Greeks begin to establish city-states in different regions of the Greek mainland: Aeolian Greeks: settle in northern and central Greece; including Athens Dorian Greeks: settle on the island of Crete, other Aegean islands and the Peloponnese; including Sparta Archaic Greece & The Polis Archaic Period: 800-480 BCE, Greece=urban society Polis=The Greek City-State

Acropolis & Agora Greek poleis reject Mycenaean monarchical system, choose self-government by citizens in various forms: Tyrannis (Tyranny): rule by one leader elected by the citizens Oligoi (Oligarchy): rule by a few chosen citizens Dmokratia (Democracy): rule by many citizens who vote on policy

Competition between city-states, rivalries bring frequent warfare and athletic competition Hoplites: heavily armored, well trained infantrymen, phalanx Olympic Games Free Market & Money Based Economy Chattel Slavery: humans bought and sold as property

Sparta Oligarchical Government Two king system: one for domestic rule, one for battlefield The Ephors: five elected to oversee education and regulate conduct The Council of 30: men over sixty debate policy to present for vote Presented policies were voted on by all men over 30 years of age

Non-Spartans denied entry into the polis Conquered polis of Messenia, Messenians to work as helots Fear of a helot revolt creates military state, cautious foreign policy The Spartan Military State Tight government control of behavior Young men educated in military discipline, enlist at 20 Men under 30 live in army barracks, eat together Men over 30 live at home, gain right to vote, discharged at 60 Women expected to exercise, given more freedom than elsewhere Art, literature, money, and commerce are forbidden

Foreign policy is isolationist Athens Archaic Athens is largest polis in Greece, trade-based economy Athens experiences transition from monarchy to oligarchy to tyranny to democracy Threat of war resulting from debt peonage brings elected tyrants Salon, Pisistratus, and Cleisthenes expand democratic participation

Council of 500 male citizens supervises the rule Cleisthenes Tyrant Pericles expands democracy Athenian men experience great amount of freedom Women stay home to cook, clean, supervise servants, raise children Must have male escort to leave home, excluded from public life

Married at 14-15 years of age, to older and established men Women expected to be literate and trained in music The Greco-Persian War 546 BCE: Cyrus the Great conquers Ionian Coast of Anatolia 499: Ionian city-states revolt, Athens sends naval support 490: Darius sends forces to Greece, repelled by Athens at Marathon

486: Xerxes, son of Darius, invades from the north Many northern and central Greek poleis accept Persian control Sparta assembles the Hellenic League (coalition of southern poleis) Battle of Thermopylae Sacking of Athens & Battle of Salamis Battle of Plataea Athenian navy controls the Aegean SeaDelian League Athenian trireme

The Athenian Trireme The Peloponnesian War Athens exercises hegemony over Delian League Sparta forms Peloponnesian League to protect itself Rivalry between the two leagues interests leads to conflict Athenians threaten Spartan interests by trading with

Spartas allies 431: Sparta marches on Athens, Athens holds out behind walls Plague (Typhoid Fever) sweeps across Athens Athens holds out for generation Extended contact with outsiders erodes Spartan integrity Peloponnesian forces are victorious, but at a cost No polis enjoys large amounts of control after the war Sparta declines, Athens rebounds, Thebes rises as commercial power

Greek Society Polytheistic Religion Temples to patron gods and goddess dominate the polis Non-institutionalized, no doctrine or moral code Oracles provide access to will of the gods Ritual sacrifice & festivals important to wellbeing of state and self Popular Entertainment Dramas performed at the amphitheater Tragedies & Comedies Aeschylus (Oresteia)

Sophocles (Oedipus Rex, Antigone) The Oracle at Delphi Greek Thought Greek art idealizes the natural world, human body Gods take human form, not anthropomorphic gods of Asia Nudity is admired, not shunned as in the traditional Asian societies Artists sign works, become known as individuals Greek philosophy (love of wisdom)

Pythagoras studies numbers in search of a unifying principle Democritus discovers the atom (atoma) Sophists travel and teach rhetoric and relativity for self- betterment The Big Three: Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle Socrates: questioned authority, held conversations with public Plato: Platonic Forms, natural world is an imperfect copy Aristotle: By studying nature, one can arrive at a better understanding of the true world, rules for successful societies Alexander the Great

By 400 BCE, Macedonia develops from a fringe state to a powerful, united, and ethnic Greek state Wealth comes from gold mines and slave trade Finances new military technologies Philip

II conquers Greek city-states, including Athens Assassinated, succeeded by sonAlexander Alexander conquers the Persian Empire, enters India Alexander

continues cross-cultural integration Exposes southwest Asia to money and Med. Goods Spread of Greek language and philosophy Redistribution of Persian wealth 323 BCE: Alexander dies of wounds and alcohol poisoning Alexanders Empire

Hellenistic Kingdoms After his death, Alexanders generals (Ptolomy, Seleucus, Antigonus, Lysimachus) split the empire into four kingdoms: Macedonia, Syria, Egypt, and Pergamum Absolute

rulers, modeled after Persian satraps Women, especially queens, exercise great influence Conquered people were equal to Greeks Greeks move throughout the Hellenistic world Greek

art, architecture, ideas, and language become common throughout Alexandria, Egypt becomes the model city Hellenistic Kingdoms Alexandria

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