ADL Presentation

ADL Presentation

Stanford APM:Plane Overview Trent Lukaczyk April 7, 2014 AA241X UAV Design and Build 1 The Problem Fly Autonomously Airframe Construction State Estimation

Algorithm Processing Control Actuation Ground Monitoring 2 The Components

3 Autopilot Unit Wireless Telemetry Remote Control Radio GPS Radio Compass Magnetometer Airspeed Sensor Battery Monitor Servos, ESC, Motor

Autopilot Unit Auto Pilot Module (APM) ArduPilot Mega (APM) 2.6 Based on Arduino 16MHz Atmega2560 processor

16 MB dataflash memory ~ 2hours of logging (download often) Needs: to point forward to be securely attached accelerometer calibration if relocated 4 Wireless Telemetry

5 Wireless Telemetry 915 MHz, 100mW Shares a NetID MAVLink Protocol Wireless Telemetry

USB Micro B DF13 6-Pin DF13 5-Pin USB A 6 DF13 Connectors Lift this lip gently with a screwdriver Can shave these hooks

off with a knife 7 Can add hot glue at the wire-connector joint. Do not use super glue here.

Pain and a Half to use Easy to break But small, reconfigurable Be careful when disconnecting! Radio Control Setup RC Transmitter, 2.4 GHz Binds with Receiver Always carry the bind plug

Four axes + mode switch Turn on first, before plane 8 Autopilot Mode Switch Radio Control 3pin Servo Wires x5

9 Radio Control Setup Autopilot Mode Switch The order of these vary with receiver 10 Servo Wires

Mixing up signal and ground can fry electronics Look for markings like this - 11 GPS + Compass 1.57 GHz GPS radio 5Hz position update Needs clear sight of sky

Magnetometer Provides heading estimate Needs to be clear of high-current electronics Needs: to point forward calibration if relocated 12 DF13 6pin GPS

13 DF13 4pin MAG Remember to point GPS and APM forward DF13 4pin DF13 5pin Airspeed Sensor

Pitot tube measures difference in Static and Total pressure, which is related to airspeed. Airspeed is relative to wind will be higher or lower if you travel against or with the wind 14 Airspeed Sensor

Silcone Tubing 3pin Servo Wire A1 15 Power Module Records current and voltage from battery Integrate for energy usage, and battery level

Powers APM, Receiver, Radios, and Servos 16 Lithium Polymer Batteries 3.7 Volts per Cell Metrics: N-Cells (2S = 2 Cells = 7.4V) Capacity (C = 1100 mAh) Discharge Rate (25C = 27.5A) Charge Rate (2C = 2.2A)

Can catch fire or leak during charging Always be present during charging Capacity loss or Bricking if over-discharged i.e. leaving plugged in over night 17 LiPo Discharge LiPos die suddenly around 3.4Volts/Cell Be ready to land around 3.5Volt/Cell Higher Current

18 traxxas.com Speed Controller Rated by Max Current and Max Voltage Direct Current Power in, Three-phase Alternating Current out Opto vs BEC BEC can power RC gear, Opto cant

19 Brushless Outrunner Motor Outrunner - magnets rotate around stator Rated by kV = no load rpm/V High kV = fast rpm, low torque Low kV = low rpm, high torque Too much power melts windings, burns out motor 20

Power Electronics Setup DF13 6-Pin DC Power DC Power 3 Phase AC 21 Carbon Folding Props

More rigid, more efficient, more expensive (vs plastic props) More dangerous they are spinning knives Spinner cap lets them fold on landing, or if motor braking is on (more efficient glide) 22 Servos Drive Motor + Rotation Sensor

+ PID Control board in 8-grams Forcing the control arms by hand wrecks gears www.twf8.ws 23 Servo Setup Elevator Rudder

3pin Servo Wires Ailerons Servo Wire Y Throttle 24 The Components

25 Autopilot Unit Wireless Telemetry Remote Control Radio GPS Radio Compass Magnetometer

Airspeed Sensor Battery Monitor Servos, ESC, Motor The Problem Fly Autonomously Airframe Construction State Estimation Algorithm Processing Control Actuation Ground Monitoring

26 Stanford_ArduPlane An easy embedded flight control software for Aerospace Engineers, based on ArduPlane ArduPlane code without the control law https://github.com/rbunge/Stanford_ArduPlane 27 Development Tools Download and install the ArduPilot Arduino

IDE Download Libraries and place in the Arduino sketch folder Download Stanford ArduPlane 28 Building Open \Stanford_ArduPlane\ \ Stanford_ArduPlane.ino with Arduino Check the board type (Mega 2560) and COM port

Verify = compile Upload = compile and upload to APM 29 The Code Editable: AA241X_ControlLaw.ino AA241X_ControlLaw.h Not Editable: AA241X_Competition.h AA241X_aux.ino

AA241X_aux.h Everything Else 30 The Code State and Control Variables (AA241X_aux.h) Roll, pitch, yaw angles and rates Inertial velocity and accelerations Heading Airspeed GPS X-Y positions

GPS and Barometric Altitudes Battery Consumption RC Inputs, Servo + Throttle Outputs 31 The Control Loops AA241X_ControlLaw.ino AA241X_AUTO_FastLoop(void){} Executes @ ~50Hz AA241X_AUTO_MediumLoop(void){} Executes @ ~10 Hz AA241X_AUTO_SlowLoop(void){}

Executes @ ~3.3 Hz Distribute algorithm to use CPU cycles wisely Beware of APM Memory limits 256k Flash Program Memory, 8K SRAM, 4K EEPROM 32 The Camera Function AA241X_aux.h 33

Telemetry Plotting Two types of logs Telemetry log Dataflash log store at higher log-rates Download from APM over USB Cable Mission Planner can dump matlab data files 34 The Problem

Fly Autonomously Airframe Construction State Estimation Algorithm Processing Control Actuation Ground Monitoring 35 Resources

36 FliteTest: youtube channel DIY Drones: forum RC groups: forum GrabCAD: community CAD models 3DRobotics: Store and Manuals

GitHub: Stanford_ArduPlane Code

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