A2 Sociology - WordPress.com

A2 Sociology - WordPress.com

Present New Information Task: For the duration of the song write as many things as you can remember about functionalism You are not allowed to share ideas! Lesson Objective To know and understand Marx's main ideas and concepts. Marxism Bourgeoisie

Ideology Proletariat Capitalism These are some key words which relate to What are the key to Marxism? Marxism - what doelements these words mean? Provide definitions on your whiteboard

Classic Marxism: Marx Classical Marxism was founded by Karl Marx Like Functionalism, Marxism is also a structural theory society is a structure or system that shapes individuals behaviour and ideas. It is also a macro theory Like Durkheim, Marx believed we could study society scientifically and this knowledge would point the way to a better society scientific socialism. However, Marxism differs from functionalism in two ways:

Conflict of Interests: Marxism is a conflict theory and suggests that within society there is a conflict between the bourgeoisie and the proletariats the proletariats are exploited to benefit the ruling class Can you think of an example of this? Instability and change: Marx did not see progress as a smooth and gradual evolution. He saw historical change as a

contradictory process in which capitalism would increase human misery before giving way to a classless communist society in which people would be free to fulfil their potential Marxism: Historical materialism Marx believed the economy was the driving force in society. Materialism we have material needs e.g. food, shelter etc.

Therefore we work to meet these needs using a means of production (e.g. machines, factories, land etc.) People work together in order to assist in production to help meet our needs they enter a social relations of production Over time as the forces of production grow so does the social relations of production As division of labour develops this leads to a division between social classes: A class that owns the means of production A class of labourers What are these called?? Base and superstructure: Society is divided into two main

parts: 1)Infrastructure (economic base) which underpins and determines everything else in society. This includes: Means of production land, factories, raw materials, technology and labour necessary to produce societys goods. Relations of production the relations between those involved in production such as who controls production, the relationship between the owner and non owners e.g. the Bourgeoisie and proletariat.

2) Superstructure includes societys social institutions such as the family, education, law, religion, mass media, beliefs and values (ideology) are all determined by the economic system. Marxism: Class society and exploitation Before class societies - In early history there was no classes, no private ownership or

exploitation (primitive communism) In class societies - one class owns the means of production which exploits the labourers. They control societys surplus product. Marx identifies three successive class societies, each with its own form of exploitation: Ancient society Feudal society Capitalist society Ancient society Exploitation of slaves legally tied to their owners

Feudal society Agricultural labourer tied to working on his Lords estate Exploitation of serfs legally tied to the land Capitalist society Exploitation of free wage

labourers Question What would society look like if it became communist? Would there be a class society and exploitation? Marxism: Capitalism Capitalism is based on a division between a class of owners (bourgeoisie) and a class of labourers (proletariat). Capitalism has three distinct features: The proletariat are legally free and separated

from the means of production they have to sell their labour to the bourgeoisie in return for wages in order to survive. The proletariat do not receive the value of their goods that their labour produces, but only the cost of subsistence keeping them alive. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v =9a_D-azUogg Marxism: Capitalism As competition between capitalists increases, ownership of the means of production becomes concentrated into fewer and fewer hands. Small independent producers

therefore fall into the ranks of the proletariat, until the vast majority are proletarianised. Transnational cooperations controlling the means of production Marxism: Capitalism Capitalism expands the forces of production in its pursuit of profit. This will push production into even-larger units; technological advances will de-skill the workforce and will result in class polarisation society divides into a minority capitalist

class and a majority working class. Marxism: Class consciousness Marx believes that polarising the classes, bringing the proletariat together in ever-larger numbers, and driving down their wages, capitalism creates the conditions under which the working class can develop a consciousness of its own economic and political interest in opposition to those of its exploiters. The proletariat move from being a class in itself to becoming a class for itself members are now class conscious and aware they need to overthrow capitalism. https://www.theguardian.com/

uk-news/2015/nov/05/three-ar rested-anti-capitalist-protester s-million-mask-march https://www.youtube.com/wat ch?v=qzwATFfA1Lo Marxism: Ideology The bourgeoisie not only control the means of production, but also the mental production the production of ideas The dominant ideas in society are therefore the ideas of the economically dominant class. Social institutions (e.g. Religion, education, media) spread ideas which reflect the bourgeoisie they

produce ideologies These ideologies legitimise (justify) the existing social order as desirable and inevitable e.g. you do not have a good job because you didnt work hard at school. Ideology creates a false class consciousness unaware of their true exploitation and this helps sustain class inequality. Marxism: Alienation Alienation is where individuals feel isolated because of their lack of power to control their lives the working class lack control over the production process. Under capitalism, alienation reaches its peak for 2 reasons:

s a re r e k r Wo tely e l p com a nd m o r f

ated rol over r a p e s cont o n e s of have c r o f the

ion t c u d pro A worker is reduce d to an uns killed labourer mindless ly repeating

a meaning less task Marxism: The state, revolution and communism The state (repressive state apparatus) e.g. Police, prisons, courts; protect the interests of the class of owners they form a ruling class They use the state as a weapon to protect their property, wealth, suppress opposition and prevent revolution. A revolution can occur and they can overthrow the existing

ruling class. Marx says a proletarian revolution will be the first revolution by a majority against a minority. It will: Abolish the state and create a classless society Abolish exploitation, replace private ownership with social ownership, and replace production for profit with production to satisfy human needs. End alienation as humans regain control of their labour. An end of capitalism will bring about communism on a world scale. Elaborate You now need to turn this into a cartoon strip demonstrating the Marxists ideas of conflict.

Present new Information Watching the following clip how could Marxists explain what happened? Is this theory useful within society or not? Can you identify any strengths and weakness or Marxism? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HjWifAuTwJg http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-14458424 Lesson Objective

To be able to fully evaluate Marxism and compare it to other theories. Construct Read the following evaluation points and in pairs decide which ones are supporting or criticising Marxists understanding of society. Why does it support/challenge their contributions to understand society? Elaborate Write these up as fully developed evaluation points onto page 15 in your booklet

Apply / Review: Question: How would you explain the contribution of Marxism to our understanding of the way society is organised. What info would you select to go into this question so far? Lesson Objective To be able to understand Neo-Marxist theories of society. Neo-Marxism

Since Marxs death, and no sign of a revolution, many Marxists reject the economic determination of the base-superstructure to explain society. Instead they have tried to explain why capitalism has persisted and how it may be overthrown. Neo-Marxism is a new type of thinking. It is influenced by traditional Marxism but is a more contemporary view of society. There are two types of Marxism: Humanistic Marxism - more about free will / interpretivism. Structural Marxism - i.e. More about science /objectivity/falsification/positivism

Animazing storyboard In pairs using your information sheet - you are going to make a series of pictures that sum up either Gramsci or Althusser. You can use it anyway you like but it must be creative so that another pair can understand the neo-Marxist ideas. You will then TEACH another pair your theorist. You will also prepare 4 questions which will then test your group to make sure each group was listening! Review Do you see yourself as more in agreement with Marxists or Functionalists? Explain why. Extension questions:

Do you think an analysis of Britain today fits more closely with functionalism (consensus) of Marxism (conflict)? Explain your views with examples. Think about the information you would use to answer the following question: Marxism and other conflict theories have little to contribute to an understanding of contemporary society Examine the extent to which sociological arguments and evidence support this view. Graffiti tables essay plan:

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