A Topical Approach to Life-Span Development, 6th edition John ...
A Topical Approach to Life-Span Development, 7th edition John W. Santrock Chapter 1 Introduction Copyright McGraw-Hill Education, 2014 The Life-Span Perspective Development Pattern of change that begins at conception and continues through life span Includes growth, but also decline and dying
Traditional view of development Extensive change from birth to adolescence Little to no change during adulthood Decline in old age Copyright McGraw-Hill Education, 2014 The Life-Span Perspective Life-span perspective Developmental change occurs throughout childhood and adulthood Human life expectancy
Maximum life span upper boundary of human life span Currently regarded as 122 years Life expectancy average number of years that a person born in a particular year can expect to live Currently 78 years in the United States Copyright McGraw-Hill Education, 2014 The Life-Span Perspective 3 types of development Normative age-graded influences - Universal Similar for individuals sharing the same age group
Normative history-graded influences Group specific Common to people of a particular generation due to historical circumstances Nonnormative life events - Individual Unusual occurrences that have a major impact on an individuals life Copyright McGraw-Hill Education, 2014 The Nature of Development Biological processes Produce changes in an individuals physical nature
Cognitive processes Involve changes in an individuals thought, intelligence, and language Socioemotional processes Involve changes in an individuals relationships with other people, emotions, and personality Copyright McGraw-Hill Education, 2014 The Nature of Development Copyright McGraw-Hill Education, 2014
The Nature of Development Chronological age Number of years since birth Biological age Age in terms of biological health Psychological age Adaptive capacities compared with others of the same chronological age Social age Connectedness with others and social roles individuals adopt Copyright McGraw-Hill Education, 2014
Developmental Psychology Scientific study of age-related changes in physical, cognitive, and social. A science of exclusion. Variety of views Innately good Innately bad Tabula Rasa (blank slate) Result? JOHN A Case Study Exercise
John was the illegitimate only child of Sara. Sara was 16 when he was born and sexually promiscuous both prior to and after the birth. She would frequently leave him with neighbors and disappear for weeks at a time. Occasionally he would live with his grandmother or aunt. When he was five, his mother was imprisoned for armed robbery. He was placed with an aunt and uncle who had numerous fights, until a religious conversion, at which time they became extremely strict and rigid. At the age of eight, his mother was released from jail, reclaimed him, drank heavily, and moved from place to place with a variety of men. At the age of twelve, his mother requested voluntary foster family care for him. His caseworker could not locate a foster home for him and consequently placed him in Residential Program A, basically a custodial program. His adjustment was noted as fair. He was considered moody. After ten months he ran away to his mother who did not want him so he ran away again. This time he became involved with several B & Es, was caught, and placed in detention where he ran again. When he was finally picked up, the worker placed him in a religious Institution (Program B) where he ran again after only four days. He and another boy became involved with several armed robberies and burglary. This time the worker placed him in Training School A where he remained for three years running away and being returned, 18 times. At the age of 16, John ran away again, this time out of state. He again became involved in armed robbery, was caught and sent to Training School B. His workers diagnosis was aggressive, anti-social personality disorder, requiring psychiatric
assistance. He was then referred to Dr. A, who gave John regular psychotherapy. Eventually, Dr. A recommended that John needed to be trusted and therefore placed him in a less structured program. At this time his aunt came forward, offering to take him upon his release. Less than a month before his hearing for said release, John held a knife to another boys throat and sexually assaulted him. He was then sent to a high security program as his worker considered him highly dangerous. He became involved in several homosexual episodes, and many disciplinary measures. At age 18, his behavior suddenly changed and John became cooperative and involved with school, although still having a problem with authority. He was discharged at the age of 19. Less than one month later, John was arrested again for auto theft, which began his life in adult crime. Over the next 10 years, he was involved in burglary, auto theft, pimping, forgery, and eventually, homicide. He is currently serving a life in prison sentence. Please rank in order of who/what you believe is most responsible for what happened to John. (#1 being most responsible) ____Genetics ____John____Worker ____Sara (mother) ____Doctor A
____Aunt and Uncle ____Grandparents ____Residential Program A ____Training School A ____Residential Program B ____Training School B Theories of Development Scientific Method Conceptualize process or problem to be studied
Collect research information (data) Analyze data Draw conclusions Theory Set of ideas to explain a phenomenon and make predictions Hypotheses Specific predictions that can be tested Copyright McGraw-Hill Education, 2014 Why do we study these changes? Research or Scientific Methods (aka
Goals) Describe Explain Predict Influence Theories of Development Psychoanalytic theories Describe development as primarily unconscious and heavily influenced by emotions Stress that early experiences with parents deeply shape development
Freuds Stages of Psychosexual Development Adult personality is shaped by how we resolve conflicts between sources of pleasure at each stage and demands of reality Copyright McGraw-Hill Education, 2014 Theories of Development Eriksons Psychosocial Theory Social motivations and desire to affiliate with others is central influence in development Emphasized importance of early and later experiences in life Copyright McGraw-Hill Education, 2014
Theories of Development Cognitive theories Emphasize conscious thought Three important theories: Piagets cognitive developmental theory Vygotskys sociocultural cognitive theory Information-processing theory Copyright McGraw-Hill Education, 2014 Theories of Development Piagets Cognitive Development Theory
Children actively construct understanding of the world Organizing observations, connecting ideas, adapting to environmental demands Copyright McGraw-Hill Education, 2014 Theories of Development Vygotskys Sociocultural Cognitive Theory Children actively construct knowledge about the world Social interaction and culture play greater role in theory Learning from more highly-skilled peers and adults Information-Processing Theory Individuals manipulate, monitor, and strategize information
Gradually develop increasing capacity for processing information Allows acquisition of increasingly complex knowledge and skills Copyright McGraw-Hill Education, 2014 Theories of Development Behavioral and Social Cognitive Theory Development is observable behavior that we learn through experience with the environment Emphasizes continuity in development Copyright McGraw-Hill Education, 2014 Theories of Development
Skinners Operant Conditioning Consequences of behavior produce changes in probability of behavior Rewards and punishments shape behavior Banduras Social Cognitive Theory Development shaped through observational learning Form cognitive representations of others behaviors May adopt behaviors, thoughts, and feelings accordingly Copyright McGraw-Hill Education, 2014 Theories of Development Ethological Theory
Behavior is strongly influenced by biology, tied to evolution, and characterized by critical or sensitive periods Specific time frames during which the presence or absence of certain experiences has long-lasting influences Konrad Lorenz European zoologist who studied behavior of greylag geese Imprinting rapid, innate learning involving attachment to first moving object Copyright McGraw-Hill Education, 2014 Theories of Development John Bowlby & Mary Ainsworth Applied ethological theory to human development
Studied attachment to caregivers Attachment is an important development over the first year of life Secure attachment predicts optimal development in childhood and adulthood Copyright McGraw-Hill Education, 2014 Theories of Development Ecological theory Emphasizes environmental factors on development Bronfenbrenners ecological theory Development reflects the influence of several environmental
systems Microsystem Mesosystem Exosystem Macrosystem Chronosystem Copyright McGraw-Hill Education, 2014
Theories of Development Eclectic Theoretical Orientation No single theory explains the complexity of life-span development Each theory has furthered understanding of the factors that shape development Rather than a strict following of a single approach, theoretical perspectives are compared to and contrasted in their views of development Copyright McGraw-Hill Education, 2014 How do we study these changes?
Types Cross-sectional Longitudinal Sequential How of data collection Case study Naturalistic Observation Survey Experiment
Hope for causal relationships although settle for correlations Ethnography Cultural Consideration Research in Life-Span Development Descriptive Research Aims to observe and record behavior Correlational Research Strives to describe the strength of the relationship between two or more events/characteristics Prediction based on strength of relationship Correlation coefficient (+1.00 to -1.00)
Copyright McGraw-Hill Education, 2014 Research in Life-Span Development Experimental Research Used to determine if one factor causes another Experiment uses carefully related procedures in which one or more factors are manipulated while all other factors are held constant Independent variable Factor changed by experimenter Dependent variable Measured by experimenter
Copyright McGraw-Hill Education, 2014 Research in Life-Span Development Experimental group Group whose experience is manipulated by researcher Control group Used for comparison purposes to experimental group Random assignment Used to determine if participants placed in experimental or control group Copyright McGraw-Hill Education, 2014
Research in Life-Span Development American Psychological Association established ethical guidelines for research Offers protection against mental or physical harm for research participants Informed consent All participants must know what research will involve, including potential risks Participants have right to withdraw from study at any point or for any reason Copyright McGraw-Hill Education, 2014
Research in Life-Span Development Do no harm Confidentiality All research participants data must be kept confidential When possible, data is kept completely anonymous Debriefing Once study is completed, participants should be informed of studys purpose and methods Deception If deception is used, it must not pose harm to participants Participants must be debriefed as soon as study is completed Copyright McGraw-Hill Education, 2014
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