516 - The Role and Impact of ICT: Legal, Moral and Social Issues
Module 5.1.6 The Role and Impact of ICT: Legal, Moral and Social Issues G. Millbery 2003 The Role and Impact of ICT: Legal, Moral and Social Issues Slide 1 Rationale and Responsibility The details given in the following slides are points for consideration. On many occasions, a point has been made, but the advantages and disadvantages of the point have not been covered. This is intended to lead to discussion. Questions asked are likely to be set within the context of a scenario and answers must be relevant to the scenario. As the world of ICT moves quickly, it is YOUR responsibility to keep up with new innovations, etc. G. Millbery 2003 The Role and Impact of ICT: Legal, Moral and Social Issues
Slide 2 Basis of Module 5.1.6 This module is a discussion module. A discussion is an extension of an explain-type answer but the candidate also has to include a relevant conclusion. The answers expected include a discussion of both the advantages and disadvantages. It is therefore necessary to have a wide knowledge of the subject area and have an opinion. G. Millbery 2003 The Role and Impact of ICT: Legal, Moral and Social Issues Slide 3 Impact of ICT on Organisations Change in organisational structure
Reduced number of employees Increased technical departments Importance of support network for machines Automation Increased technical services Less office space/shop floor space G. Millbery 2003 Equipment is not compact Air conditioning The Role and Impact of ICT: Legal, Moral and Social Issues Slide 4 Impact of ICT on Organisations Reliance on Computers
Changeover Decrease of downtime Training of staff Changeover of data Effect on customers during changeover period Increase in employees? G. Millbery 2003 Network managers Technicians, etc. The Role and Impact of ICT: Legal, Moral and Social Issues Slide 5 How communication systems have changed our use of ICT - Travel Video conferencing
Advantages Cost of travel Cost of Time Multiple people in a conversation Complete accurate record of conference Exchange of ideas Disadvantages No face to face confrontation Body language is limited Time differences G. Millbery 2003 The Role and Impact of ICT: Legal, Moral and Social Issues Slide 6 How communication systems have changed our use of ICT - Privacy Transmission of information worldwide
Advantages Use of Encryption Circuit switching v packet switching for mail delivery Personal Privacy implemented personal life, financial Disadvantages Employees misusing facilities Governments and terrorism/crime Tapping into signal G. Millbery 2003 The Role and Impact of ICT: Legal, Moral and Social Issues Slide 7 How communication systems have changed our use of ICT Communication skills Incorporation into everyday tasks and devices
Spelling in E-mails r u ok Verbal skills have less emphasis more e-mail Body language not needed- e-mail and video conferencing Social skills limited as not required in on-line Internet fridge linked to on-line ordering Transfer of data via shoes WAP phones, TVs e-mail phones, etc. Use of networks/collaborative working Send e-mails of work anywhere in the world and receive replies Sharing of ideas Human Genome Project Use of internet for finding data resources for research G. Millbery 2003 The Role and Impact of ICT: Legal, Moral and Social Issues Slide 8 Social Impact of ICT on Individuals
Eroding work/social boundaries through teleworking The facility to shop from home on the Internet Job satisfaction Ease of tasks Benefits to the disabled and elderly G. Millbery 2003 The Role and Impact of ICT: Legal, Moral and Social Issues Slide 9 Social Impact of ICT on Individuals Shopping Advantages Home deliveries Availability of choice / size No national boundaries Disadvantages
G. Millbery 2003 Problems returning May not get required item, but a replacement Cannot check quality Dangers of fraud Unemployment small shops The Role and Impact of ICT: Legal, Moral and Social Issues Slide 10 Social Impact of ICT on Individuals Teleworking Advantages Disadvantages
G. Millbery 2003 Less pollution traffic Flexible working hours Less money spent on child minders More time to spend with family No pressure of boss looking over shoulder Less control over workforce No social aspects of work Less reliability over deadlines Geographical diversity of employees The Role and Impact of ICT: Legal, Moral and Social Issues Slide 11 Social Impact of ICT on Individuals Benefits to the disabled and elderly Advantages Specifically designed hardware (e.g. puff-suck switch, foot mouse, etc) No difference when on-line between one person and the next Time for use (during the day) Disadvantages
Increased use clogging bandwidth More discerning in spending of money less profit G. Millbery 2003 The Role and Impact of ICT: Legal, Moral and Social Issues Slide 12 Social Implications of Computers Changing Employment Locations Drawbacks of ICT Amount of personal data stored on computer Increased opportunity for criminal activities Time wasting games, on-line, addiction Health Problems RSI, Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Dependence on Computers
Use of communication technology leads to geographically remote employees Teleworking increasing Social Dependence on chat rooms, e-mail etc. Power failure and consequences Virus and computer security Retraining of Individuals G. Millbery 2003 The Role and Impact of ICT: Legal, Moral and Social Issues Slide 13 Impact of ICT on Society Home Education Medicine
Commerce with reliance on automated systems such as ATMs G. Millbery 2003 The Role and Impact of ICT: Legal, Moral and Social Issues Slide 14 Impact of ICT on Society Home Gadgets Washing Machine, Microwaves, etc Control and protection of environment Alarms, Ventilation, Heating Control of finances via internet Order food and goods without leaving the house Education Computer Aided Learning (CAL)
Instant Feedback Learning at the students pace Re-cover ground not understood Distance Learning via technology E-mail work Video Conferencing Computer Based Training Video Simulators G. Millbery 2003 The Role and Impact of ICT: Legal, Moral and Social Issues Slide 15 Impact of ICT on Society Medicine Expert Systems (MYCIN) to aid diagnosis Internet Dr Sites
Databases of drugs and side effects Records of Patients Use of E-mail to send records from Dr to hospital Monitoring Intensive care beds Production of Prescriptions Can even be sent to pharmacist G. Millbery 2003 The Role and Impact of ICT: Legal, Moral and Social Issues Slide 16 Impact of ICT on Society Business Communication Fax, Tele/Video Conferencing Storage of Information Databases, Spreadsheets
Management Information Systems Commerce Transactions G. Millbery 2003 Banks Switch, EFTPOS Internet and secure shopping Advertising on the internet Loyalty Cards and Points ATMs replace staff in banks The Role and Impact of ICT: Legal, Moral and Social Issues Slide 17 Impact of ICT on Society Manufacturing
Computer Aided Design Simulations, Modelling Computer Aided Manufacture Computer Controlled Robots Greater consistency Longer working hours Geographically remote location No need for windows, lights, etc G. Millbery 2003 Increase in support staff Decrease in skilled workers The Role and Impact of ICT: Legal, Moral and Social Issues Slide 18 Changing patterns of UK Workforce 1841 - 1978 65 60 55 50 % 45 o
40 f W o r k f o r c e 35 30 25 20 Secondary (m anufacturing) 15 Tertiary (services) Prim ary (agriculture) 10 5 0 1841 1851 1861
1871 G. Millbery 2003 1881 1891 1901 1911 Years 1921 1931 1941 The Role and Impact of ICT: Legal, Moral and Social Issues 1951 1961 1971 1978 Slide 19
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