1.1 Safety in the Science Classroom

1.1 Safety in the Science Classroom

4.2 Names and Formulas of Compounds Ionic compounds are made up of positive and negative ions. All of the positive and negative ions organize in a pattern. Negative-positive attract. Negative-negative and positive-positive repel. Ionic compounds form from the inside out as solid crystals. Ionic compounds are like a solid stack of bricks. A salt shaker contains thousands of small pieces of NaCl. Salt, NaCl Covalent molecules share electrons. There is generally no order to the formation of covalent molecules. These molecules clump together as solids, liquids or gases. Covalent molecules are like a play-pit full of plastic balls. Each plastic ball = 1 covalent molecule of H2O See pages 184 - 185 Water, H2O (c) McGraw Hill Ryerson 2007 The Chemical Name and Formula

of an Ionic Compound Ionic compounds are composed of positive ions and negative ions. The name of an ionic compound = positive ion + negative ion-ide. For example, an ionic compound forms between magnesium and oxygen. The positive ion is the first part of the name, magnesium. The negative ion forms part of the ending of the name, oxygen. Add -ide to the end of the name to form magnesium oxide. Ionic formulas are based on the ions of the atoms involved. Remember the naming principles above. For example, what is the name of Ca3N2? Ca, the positive ion, is calcium. N, the negative ion, is nitrogen. Drop the end of the anion and add -ide. Calcium nitride Magnesium oxide is used as a drying agent. See pages 186 - 187 (c) McGraw Hill Ryerson 2007

The Chemical Name and Formula of an Ionic Compound (continued) Writing formulas for ionic compounds: In an ionic compound, the positive charges balance out the negative charges. The ratio of positive:negative charges gives the proper formula. Calcium oxide, also The ratio is always written in reduced form. known as For example, what is the formula for magnesium phosphide? quicklime was once produced by 3 magnesium is Mg2+ cooking limestone phosphorous is P in ancient kilns. Lowest common multiple of 2 and 3 is 6 3 Mg2+ ions and 2 P3 ions Mg3P2 Try the formula for calcium oxide. calcium is Ca2+ oxygen is O2 1 Ca2+ ion and 1 O2 ions

Ca2O2, which is simplified and written as CaO See page 188 (c) McGraw Hill Ryerson 2007 Formula of an Ionic Compound with a Multivalent Metal Some transitional metals are multivalent, meaning they have more than one ion form. On the periodic table, the most common form of the ion is listed on top. In the name of the compound, Roman numerals are used following the positive ion to indicate which ion was used. For example, what is the formula manganese (III) sulphide? This manganese is Mn3+. sulfur is S2 Lowest common multiple of 3 and 2 is 6 2 Mn3+ ions and 3 S2 ions

Mn2S3 Try the name for TiF4 titanium is Ti4+ or Ti3+ 1 Ti4+ ion and 4 F ions titanium (IV) fluoride fluorine is F See pages 189 - 191 (c) McGraw Hill Ryerson 2007 Polyatomic Ions Some ions, called polyatomic ions, are made up of several atoms joined together with covalent bonds. The whole group has a + or charge, not the individual atoms. What is the formula of sodium sulphate? Na+ and SO 2 4 Na2SO4 What is the name of the compound KClO? K+ = potassium ClO = hypochlorite

potassium hypochlorite See pages 192 - 193 (c) McGraw Hill Ryerson 2007 Names and Formulas of Covalent Compounds Covalent compounds, also called molecules, rely on the chemical formula to reveal the components of the molecule. Covalent compounds are made up of two or more non-metals. Names may reveal the components, but often they do not. Subscripts mean something different in covalent compounds Ionic compounds subscripts show the smallest whole-number ratio between the ions in the compound. Covalent molecules have subscripts that show the actual number of atoms in the molecule. What is the chemical formula for the molecule ethanol? C2H6O, a name that must be memorized or looked up when needed. What is the name of the molecule C12O22H11? Sucrose, also called table sugar. See page 193

(c) McGraw Hill Ryerson 2007 Naming Binary Covalent Compounds Binary covalent compounds (two non-metal atoms) use a system of prefixes. Covalent compounds may have many or few atoms sharing electrons. CH4 = methane and C25H52 = candle wax Prefixes are often used before the atom name to indicate the number of atoms in the molecule. CO = carbon monoxide, CO2 = carbon dioxide Write the most metallic atom (farthest left) first Add -ide to theend of the second atoms name What is the chemical formula for the molecule trinitrogen tetrachloride? N3Cl4 What is the name of the molecule Si3P6? Trisilicon hexaphosphide See pages 194 - 195 (c) McGraw Hill Ryerson 2007 Comparing Ionic and Covalent Compounds

To determine whether a compound is ionic or covalent: 1. Examine the formula. Ionic compounds start with a metal or the ammonium ion. Covalent compounds start with a non-metal. 2. If the compound is covalent: Use the prefix system of naming if the compound is binary and does not start with hydrogen. If there are more than two different elements, or it starts with H, there is probably a different, simpler name for the covalent molecule. 3. If the compound is ionic: Check the metal to see if it is multivalent (add a Roman numeral if it is multivalent). Naming starts with the name of the metal atom. If it ends with a single non-metal, naming will just end in -ide. If it ends in a polyatomic ion, look up the name/formula. See pages 196 - 197 Take the Section 4.2 Qu (c) McGraw Hill Ryerson 2007

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